Beacon Lesson Plan Library

Cause or Effect

Janice Jowers
Okaloosa County Schools

Description

The students develop relationships among ideas by recognizing cause and effect in sentences. They complete a whole-group activity then play a station activity game where they determine if part of a sentence is the cause or effect.

Standards

Florida Sunshine State Standards
LA.B.1.2.2.5.3
The student uses devices to develop relationships among ideas (for example, transitional devices; paragraphs that show a change in time, idea, or place; cause-and-effect relationships).

Florida Process Standards
Information Managers
01 Florida students locate, comprehend, interpret, evaluate, maintain, and apply information, concepts, and ideas found in literature, the arts, symbols, recordings, video and other graphic displays, and computer files in order to perform tasks and/or for enjoyment.

Effective Communicators
02 Florida students communicate in English and other languages using information, concepts, prose, symbols, reports, audio and video recordings, speeches, graphic displays, and computer-based programs.

Materials

-Overhead transparency of the Cause or Effect Teacher Introduction Lesson (See Attached File)
-Overhead projector
-Overhead making pens
-4 or 5 Copies of the Cause or Effect Game Board (See Attached File)
-4 or 5 File folders
-Laminating Machine (optional)
-4 or 5 Sheets of different colored construction paper (optional)
-4 or 5 Copies of the Cause or Effect Game Sentences (See Attached File)
-4 or 5 Copies of the Cause or Effect Answer Key (See Attached File)
-Small manipulatives for the students to use as playing pieces
-4 or 5 Pennies

Preparations

1. Download the Cause or Effect Teacher Introduction Lesson (See Attached File) and make an overhead copy.
2. Gather overhead projector and projector pens.
3. Download the Cause or Effect Game Board. (See Attached File)
4. Duplicate four or five copies of the Cause or Effect Game Board. Glue one Cause or Effect Game Board inside each of the file folders.
5. Laminate the Cause or Effect Game Boards to make them sturdier.
6. Download the Cause or Effect Game Sentences. (See Attached File) Duplicate the Cause or Effect Game Sentences onto sheets of different colored construction paper for each file folder game.
7. Download a copy of the Cause or Effect Answer Key. (See Attached File) The Answer Key has been designed to be copied on the back of the Game Sentences. When this is done, the answers and sentences match up for each piece.
8. Laminate the construction paper copies of the Cause or Effect Game Sentences (with the answers on the back) before you cut them apart so the game will be sturdier.
9. Cut the rectangles of the Cause or Effect Game Sentences apart.
10. Place the Cause or Effect file folders games in the language arts learning center.

Procedures

1. Set up the overhead projector.

2. Hold up a ball and ask the students what will happen when you drop the ball. Accept all answers, but emphasize that the ball will bounce on the floor. On the overhead projector write this sentence: When I drop the ball, it will bounce on the floor. Underline the first part of the sentence, When I drop the ball and ask the students to think about if that is the cause of the ball bouncing, or the effect. Explain to them that the underlined part of the sentence is the cause of the ball bouncing, and demonstrate this by dropping the ball and to show its cause. Then underline the last part of the sentence, it will bounce on the floor and explain to the students that this is the effect of dropping the ball. Demonstrate this by dropping the ball again and showing them that the effect of dropping the ball is its bouncing on the floor.

3. Display the Cause or Effect Teacher Introduction Lesson on the overhead and explain to the students that they will use cause and effect devices to determine relationships between ideas.

4. Read each sentence aloud with the children. Reread the underlined part of the sentence to the students and ask them if they think the underlined part is the cause or the effect of the sentence. Accept explanations from the students, making sure they understand the correct answer. Have the children explain how they know whether the underlined part is the cause or effect.

5. Explain to the students that they are going to play a game in the language station called Cause or Effect in which they will determine if the underlined part of the sentence is the cause or effect of the sentence.

6. There should be two to four students per game.

7. The students open the Cause or Effect file folder game. Inside the folder is a game board that the students travel along as they read sentences and determine if the underlined part is the cause or effect. The player draws a card and reads the sentence. The student then rereads the underlined part of the sentence and says whether the underlined part is the cause or effect of the sentence. The players then check the answer for correctness using the answer key, or if you have put the correct answers on the back of each sentence, the players turns the sentence card over to check for correctness. If the player answers correctly he/she flips the penny and moves along the board, one space if the penny lands on heads, and two spaces if it lands on tails. If he/she answers incorrectly, they do not advance and it is the other player's turn.

8. The students use the answer key to check each other for correctness.

9. While the students are completing the Cause or Effect activity, the teacher should circulate and offer feedback to them. The teacher could offer assistance such as: Rachel, reread the underlined part of the sentence. Does that part tell you something that is done, then it is the cause. If the underlined part tells you something that happens because of what was done, then that is the effect. The teacher should note the students who seem to be struggling and provide them with extra assistance.

10. After the students have completed the activity, have them write five sentences on a sheet of paper containing a cause and effect relationship. Have the students exchange papers with the other members of their group and see if they can determine the cause and effect parts of their classmates' sentences. Have the children illustrate one of the sentences and show the cause and effect of that sentence.

11. Once students have completed their work, collect their papers and assess according to the criteria listed in Assessments (below).

Assessments

1. To evaluate the students' comprehension of this skill, the teacher can observe their work during the Cause or Effect game. This would be a formative assessment. The students should identify the correct cause or effect answers with 80% accuracy. Students not reaching 80% should be retaught and reassessed.

2. The sentences that they write containing cause and effect should be formatively assessed to check that they have used the cause and effect relationships correctly. Again, students should score 80% accuracy. Those not reaching 80% accuracy should be retaught and reassessed.

Extensions

Have the students make new Cause or Effect Game Sentences and a related Answer Key. They could cut out blocks of construction paper and write sentences of their own that contain cause and effect relationships on them. They could use these sentences to replay the Cause or Effect game, using the same game board.

Modifications:
The students who might have difficulty with this assignment should work with a partner to read the words. This will enhance their level of competency in this skill.

Web Links

Web supplement for Cause or Effect
A Cognitive Model For Teaching Reading Comprehension

Web supplement for Cause or Effect
Brain Connection

Student reading activities for Cause or Effect
Kids Mysteries

Web supplement for Cause or Effect
If You Give A Mouse A Cookie

Return to the Beacon Lesson Plan Library.