Beacon Lesson Plan Library

A Colony is Born : Lesson 2 - Sez Who?

Katie Koehnemann
Bay District Schools

Description

This is the second lesson in a unit on colonization. It establishes baseline knowledge of students' understanding of primary and secondary sources and the likenesses and differences of them with regard to a selected historical event.

Objectives

The student uses a variety of methods and sources to understand history (such as interpreting diaries, letters, newspapers; and reading maps and graphs) and knows the difference between primary and secondary sources.

The student extends previously learned knowledge and skills of the fourth grade level with increasingly complex reading texts and assignments and tasks (for example, explicit and implicit ideas).

The student reads and organizes information from multiple sources for a variety of purposes (for example, supporting opinions, predictions, and conclusions; writing a research report; conducting interviews; taking a test; performing tasks).

The student compares and contrasts primary and secondary accounts of selected historical events (for example, diary entries from a soldier in a Civil War battle and newspaper articles about the same battle).

The student knows significant events in the colonization of North America, including but not limited to the Jamestown and Plymouth settlements, and the formation of the thirteen original colonies.

The student understands selected aspects of everyday life in Colonial America (for example, impact of religions, types of work, use of land, leisure activities, relations with Native Americans, slavery).

Materials

- Suggested Web sites
- Access to the Student Web Lesson From Colonial Crossing to Kitty Hawk
- Method by which students can view the Student Web Lesson (One computer/TV display OR computers where pairs of students can work together)
- An area in the classroom where examples of primary and secondary sources can be put on display
- 3 to 5 concrete examples of primary and secondary sources (Newspaper articles, textbook, original documents, first hand accounts)
- 3 to 5 abstract examples of primary and secondary sources (Excerpts from diaries, textbooks, an encyclopedia, or original account)
- Two heading cards for the display. One for Primary and one for Secondary.
- A wall chart titled Definition
- A wall chart titled Characteristics (set up as the T-chart in the Associated File)
- A wall chart titled Venn Diagram
- A wall chart titled What’s the Difference
- Colored markers for recording
- Copied and hole-punched for each student:
Primary/Secondary Characteristics T-chart (In Associated File)
Venn Diagram (In Associated File)
What’s the Difference (In Associated File)
NOTE: These three sheets are requirements of the Colonial Notebook
-Primarily Speaking activity sheet (In Associated File) (To be used as a Learning Center Activity)
- A different primary and secondary accounting of a historical event copied and laminated (To be used with the Learning Center activity sheet above)
- Each student will need his or her A Colony Is Born notebook.
- A piece of colored construction paper cut and labeled Primary vs. Secondary Sources to be used to fill a cargo section of the bulletin board ship
- Current Social Studies textbook for use as a reference if it is appropriate.

Preparations

(1) Prepare an area in the classroom where you will set up the heading cards and examples of primary and secondary sources as a display.
(2) Bookmark suggested Web sites .
(3) Select 3 to 5 concrete (physical, in-the-hand) examples of primary and secondary sources. (Newspaper articles, textbook, original documents, first hand accounts) (Web sites suggested in the Web Links section are a good source.)
(4) Select 3 to 5 abstract (no pictorial or physical representation, intrinsic form only) examples of primary and secondary sources. (Excerpts from diaries, textbooks an encyclopedia, or original account) (Web sites suggested in the Web Links section are a good source.)
(5) Type the excerpts you choose for your abstract examples, using a large font, and print them out.
NOTE: It is recommended that when selecting primary and secondary sources to evaluate, focus on Jamestown. By doing so, you will build a foundation for the rest of the unit of study.
(6) Make two heading cards for the display, one Primary and one Secondary.
(7) Make a wall chart titled Definition.
(8) Make a wall chart titled Characteristics. (Set up as the T-chart in the Associated File.)
(9) Make a wall chart titled Venn Diagram.
(10) Make a wall chart titled Explaining the Difference.
NOTE: I strongly suggest the Post-It self-adhesive chart paper! This is not only very convenient but great for those newly renovated classroom walls that principals won’t let you staple, pin, or tape to. It stays in place, can be peeled off and moved at your will and it doesn’t leave a mark! It’s worth the price!
(11) Gather colored markers for recording.
(12) Copy and hole punch student handouts.
(13) Choose a different primary and secondary accounting of a historical event to copy and laminate. (To be used with the Learning Center activity sheet above.)
(14) Prepare a piece of colored construction paper cut and labeled Primary vs Secondary Sources to be used to fill a cargo section of the bulletin board ship

Procedures

NOTE: Students should have been exposed to and have prior knowledge with regards to primary and secondary sources. If your students do not have a firm background, it is suggested that you utilize the Student Web Lesson, From Colonial Crossing to Kittyhawk, as an instructional or review tool.

Explain to students that they have already learned about primary and secondary sources, and that the first part of today’s lesson will refresh their knowledge and understanding. The cargo that will be loaded on the bulletin board ship today, will be that of comparing and contrasting a primary and secondary source. During the second part of the lesson, students will answer the question: What do we learn about this event from the primary source account, and how does it differ from what we learn from a secondary account of the same event?


PART I – UNDERSTANDING AND CLARIFICATION
(Time suggested for Part I is 30 minutes. You may choose to do both Part I and II back to back during one sitting, or as separate times of the same day, or on two different days.)

(1) Introduction of Sources: Say to students: I have gathered some informational sources to share with you. Let’s take a look at the primary and secondary sources that I have gathered. These examples are all representative of the settling of the Jamestown Colony. At this point, hold up the various concrete examples you have gathered. Read aloud the various abstract excerpts you have printed out in large font on individual sheets of paper so that they can be a part of the display. As you introduce each item or read each excerpt, ask students if it is an example of a primary or a secondary source. As it is determined through class discussion and student justification statements, place each item on a table under the correct heading card. Facilitate the discussion so that characteristics of each are mentioned.
(2) Continue the class discussion leading students to generate a class definition of a primary source, and record it on the Definition wall chart. Do the same for the term secondary source and record the class definition on the chart.

PART II – COMPARING AND CONTRASTING – WHAT DO WE LEARN ABOUT THE EVENT FROM THIS SOURCE?
(Time suggested for Part II is 50 minutes. You may choose to do both Part I and II back to back during one sitting, or as separate times of the same day, or on two different days.)

Using the sources that have just been discussed and displayed in the classroom . . .
(3) Divide the class into four groups. Each group is to choose a facilitator, a recorder, a timekeeper, and a reporter. Every group member must contribute to the discussion.

(4) Hand each student a copy of the T-chart. (In Associated File) Challenge groups to discuss and list the characteristics of both primary and secondary sources. The facilitator will keep the discussion orderly and help the recorder get all ideas down. All students will write on their own sheets, but the recorder will be responsible for keeping the group's record. The timekeeper will watch the time and keep the discussion focused. Circulate among groups assessing their use of human resources within the group and how students accept the responsibility of their roles. Offer assistance by asking leading questions that will help groups to think about how and to what they are responding.

(5) Move to the Characteristics wall chart. As the reporter in each group shares what the group listed on the T-chart, act as class facilitator and record on the class chart characteristics mentioned. Continue to add items not already mentioned and recorded by another group, until each group has reported out, and all appropriate ideas are shared and recorded.

(6) Follow steps 4 and 5 as described above for the Venn Diagram handout (In Associated File). (HELPFUL HINT: Say: You have been given a Venn diagram. We use it when we compare two items to show how they are alike and different. Each circle is labeled for you: the left is Primary, the right, Secondary. Think how this could be used to compare what we learn from the primary source and the secondary source account of the Jamestown colony. (This may send them for a loop! Don’t let them get too caught up in the diagram if you can tell they don’t have a clue as to what to do, or if they struggle with it. You will be able to guide their thinking process about this as the groups report.)

(7) Follow steps 4 and 5 as described above for the ‘Explaining the Difference’ handout (In Associated File). (HELPFUL HINT: Say: Let’s move to the narrative part of our challenge. Narrative means that we can write out in words what we need to say. Even if you were not sure of how to work the Venn Diagram, you still may know how to explain the difference between the primary and secondary accounts of this historical event. So take a few minutes to talk to the paper. Tell, in your groups’ words, how the information from these sources is alike and different.)

(8) Ask students where they think these three handouts should be filed in their A Colony Is Born notebook. Be certain that they understand these pages should be placed in the Sources section, and in the order they were presented in class.

LEARNING CENTER ACTIVITY IDEAS:
These ideas are given so that as you are conducting small guided reading groups (as described in the Reading Framework which some districts are implementing) at another time during the day, the other students will have meaningful and integrated activities for which to be accountable.
(1) Place a laminated copy of both a primary and secondary text describing the same historical event. Have copies of the Primarily Speaking activity sheet (in Associated File) hole punched and ready for students to complete and keep in their notebook. This sheet is a requirement of the Colonial Notebook. (File in Sources section of notebook.)
(2) Hang the three class charts, Characteristics, Venn Diagram, and What’s the Difference, on the wall at a Learning Center. Students are to visit the center to check their three handout sheets, which were started in their groups, for accuracy and completion. These three handouts are requirements of the Colonial Notebook. (File in Sources section of notebook)

(9) To acknowledge the work that the class has done during this class period on primary and secondary sources, choose a student to fill the designated cargo section of the ship’s hull by attaching the colored construction paper which has been labeled Primary vs. Secondary Sources.

Assessments

These formative assessments lead to summative assessments at the end of the Unit Plan: A Colony Is Born.

The Group Task will formatively assess students.

FOR SCORING: To assess if students are successful and to what level, monitor each group for the assigning of students to the roles of facilitator, recorder, timekeeper, and reporter. Watch for input from all students and full participation of each group.

FOR SCORING: To assess if a student is successful and to what level, check the accuracy of identifying characteristics of primary and secondary sources, completion of the Venn Diagram, and the narrative statement comparing and contrasting the two.

The activity page Primarily Speaking will formatively assess the students.

FOR SCORING: To assess if a student is successful and to what level, check for completeness, accuracy of interpretation of sources, and understanding of the likenesses and differences between the two.

The self-check activity will give students the opportunity to formatively assess themselves. FOR SCORING: To assess if a student is successful and to what level, check the three handouts (T-chart, Venn Diagram, Narrative) for corrections (additions and /or deletions), completeness, and accuracy.

FOR SCORING: To assess if a student is successful and to what level, check the notebook for accuracy of placing handouts within the proper tab of the notebook and in the correct order within that section.

Extensions

(1) The recording of group feedback on the Characteristics, Venn Diagram, and What’s the Difference class wall charts can be done by a student as opposed to the teacher. If your class is accustomed to having class meetings with student recorders, or if you are ready to teach your students how to record on a large chart, this would be an excellent opportunity to do so. In addition, it would present another activity to formatively assess students for Goal 3, Standard 6: Resource Managers.
NOTE: If you decide to have students write the charts, you must be certain all information is accurate and included, as these charts are what all students will use in the center activity to self-check and make changes to their individual charts.

(2) LEARNING CENTER ACTIVITY IDEAS:
These ideas are given so that as you are conducting small guided reading groups (as described in the Reading Framework which some districts are implementing) at another time during the day, the other students will have meaningful and integrated activities foe which to be accountable.

(3) Place a laminated copy of both a primary and secondary text describing the same historical event. Have copies of the Primarily Speaking activity sheet (in Associated File) hole punched and ready for students to complete and keep in their notebooks. This sheet is a requirement of the Colonial Notebook. (File in Sources section of notebook)

(4) Hang the three class charts Characteristics, Venn Diagram, and What’s the Difference on the wall at a Learning Center. Students are to visit the center to check their three handout sheets, which were started in their groups, for accuracy and completion. These three handouts are requirements of the Colonial Notebook. (File in Sources section of notebook)

(5) The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2962. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, Associated Files. This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).

Web Links

These links will be helpful for primary and secondary sources with focus on the settling of Jamestown. (NOTE: Web links provided are for use throughout the duration of the unit. It is not expected that you will need them all, nor will the ones you decide to use be used all at one time or with one lesson. It will be helpful to take some time before beginning the unit to look all of these over to select the ones best suited for your class. Share and use with students as appropriate.)
USA: Instructions for the Virginia Colony

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
USA: index to source material

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
USA: The Colonial Period

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
USA: Richard Hakluyt Discourse of Western Planting

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
A Brief History of Jamestown

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
Droughts Play Major Role

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
Jamestowne Society

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
List of Settlers

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
The History Place

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
Virtual Jamestown

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
Archiving Early America

COLONIES - Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
Kids Info

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
Colonization

Web supplement for Lesson 2 - Sez Who?
A-To- Z History: Colonial Life in America

For Lesson 3, you will only need to print out the first three pages of this comprehensive article. At the site, click Print this article, then click Print and give the range 1-3. You may want to print one copy in its entirety so as to help you print only the pages needed by selected groups of students as the unit progresses.
Colonial America 1600-1775 K12 Resources

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