Beacon Lesson Plan Library

A Colony is Born : Lesson 4 – What Went Wrong?

Katie Koehnemann
Bay District Schools

Description

Lesson 4 focus is on Roanoke and Jamestown. Students examine what worked well, what did not, and significant events of the two colonies. Students emulate modeled note taking, use a T-chart for organizing the information, and make additions to timelines.

Objectives

The student reads text and determines the main idea or essential message, identifies relevant supporting details and facts, and arranges events in chronological order.

The student uses a variety of methods and sources to understand history (such as interpreting diaries, letters, newspapers; and reading maps and graphs) and knows the difference between primary and secondary sources.

The student extends previously learned knowledge and skills of the fourth grade level with increasingly complex reading texts and assignments and tasks (for example, explicit and implicit ideas).

The student reads and organizes information from multiple sources for a variety of purposes (for example, supporting opinions, predictions, and conclusions; writing a research report; conducting interviews; taking a test; performing tasks).

The student compares and contrasts primary and secondary accounts of selected historical events (for example, diary entries from a soldier in a Civil War battle and newspaper articles about the same battle).

The student constructs and labels a timeline based on a historical reading (for example, about United States history).

The student knows significant events in the colonization of North America, including but not limited to the Jamestown and Plymouth settlements, and the formation of the thirteen original colonies.

The student understands selected aspects of everyday life in Colonial America (for example, impact of religions, types of work, use of land, leisure activities, relations with Native Americans, slavery).

Materials

- Copies of Web site text you choose for guided reading, hole punched, for each student. (Include both primary and secondary source examples)
- Transparency copies of each text you have chosen for reading on which you will model, highlighting essential information within text.
- Optional: Social Studies text currently being used with your students may be helpful. - Corresponding colored shapes to fill cargo sections of the bulletin board ship. One labeled Significant Events for Roanoke and one labeled Significant Events for Jamestown.
- Markers for the classroom timeline to record events that will be discussed during this lesson. (Idea: You may want to have small sailing ships with an event and year printed on each one so they can be attached to the classroom timeline.)
- Copies of What Worked Well (the T-chart graphic organizer, hole punched, for each student. (In Associated File)
- What Worked Well graphic organizer created on chart paper for you to record students' response during the card game at the beginning of the lesson.
- What Worked Well graphic organizer created on chart paper for you to model information management as students read and engage in discussion of the text.
- Highlighters for students and for the overhead transparencies
- A deck of cards (does not have to be a full deck, just the number of cards you feel will suffice for this introduction) with a problem, scenario, or obstacle that the colonists had to overcome printed on each. Examples in Associated File.
- Copies of the assignment page, Defend Thy Self (In Associated File)
- Copies of the assignment page, $64,000 Dollar Questions (In Associated File)
- Overhead projector
- Screen
- Vis-à-vis markers
- Students should have their Colonial Notebooks

Preparations

(1) Make hole-punched copies of the Web site text you choose for guided reading. (Include both primary and secondary source examples.)

(2) Make transparency copies of each text you have chosen for reading on which you will model, highlighting essential information within text.

(3) Have on hand a Social Studies textbook, if you intend to use readings from this source.

(4) Make corresponding colored shapes to fill cargo sections of the ship. One labeled Significant Events for Roanoke and one labeled Significant Events for Jamestown.

(5) Make markers for the classroom timeline to record events that will be discussed during this lesson. (Idea: You may want to have small sailing ships with an event and year printed on each one, so they can be attached to the classroom timeline.)

(6) Make hole-punched copies of the What Worked Well graphic organizer for students. (In Associated File)

(7) Make a completed, laminated copy of the What Worked Well graphic organizer for formatively assessing students and for students to self check their T-charts and note taking skills at an activity center. (In Associated File)

(8) Prepare on chart paper the What Worked Well graphic organizer for you to record student response during the card game at the beginning of the lesson.

(9) Prepare on chart paper the What Worked Well graphic organizer for you to model information management as students read and engage in discussion of the text.

(10) Prepare a deck of cards by printing on each a problem, scenario, or obstacle that the colonists had to overcome. See Associated File for examples. (For example: location (or site), Native Americans, food supply, weather, colonists, leadership, fresh water, shelter, clothing, lack of proper clothing, etc.). This activity will encourage usage of students' higher order thinking skills. For example, if students draw Colonists, they should be able to say that it was a help because the Colonists could work together and solve their problems together. Or students may say that the Colonists could be a problem because if they all wanted to go against the grain and make their own decisions, they would never get things accomplished.

(11) Gather the following items:
- Highlighters for students to use
- Highlighter for you to use with the overhead transparencies
- Overhead projector
- Screen, and
- Vis-à-vis markers.

(12) Students should have their Colonial Notebooks.

(13) Copies of activity page Defend Thy Self. (In Associated File)

(14) Copies of activity page The $64,000 Dollar Question (In Associated File)

(15) Locate the test on the Web site Jamestowne Society and be ready to show students how to interact with the site by performing the assessment.

Procedures

Note: If you would like to complete the Unit Plan: A Colony Is Born, please see the Extensions.

The text that is used for this lesson, and the time it takes to cover it, can be considered as your reading lesson for the day. This lesson is intricately integrated to address more than one discipline, and I highly recommend that you take such into consideration as you plan your day. By doing so, you will afford yourself more time, if needed, to do all of the optional activities, and you will relieve yourself of the burden of doing both reading and social studies.

(1) To begin, lead students into playing a situational card game (it serves as a type of diagnostic assessment): Card playing was one of the favorite games of the colonists. Let's play a bit of a card game to start our day. Have several students draw a card. On the face of it, have printed a problem, scenario, or obstacle that the colonists had to overcome. (For example: location (or site), Native Americans, food supply, weather, colonists, leadership, fresh water, shelter, clothing, lack of proper clothing, etc.). The student reads the obstacle aloud and has thirty seconds to tell how he/she thinks the item named was a help or hindrance and why, in starting the colonies of Roanoke and Jamestown. You can have the same item on more than one card to give more students a chance to participate, and it allows you a chance to invoke responses that are different and represent different thoughts and points of view. Record student responses on chart paper, which is set up like the What Worked Well? T-chart that they will be completing during the course of the lesson. Once these factors that affected the difficulties the colonists experienced have been sufficiently unveiled, explain that today’s cargo is a double load for our ship. We will be loading Helps and Hindrances of Roanoke and Helps and Hindrances of Jamestown.

(2) Explain to students: Today we are going to explore things that worked and things that did not work. Our note taking will be as we read selected text and engage in class discussion about the text. Hand out to students a copy of the T-chart, What Worked Well? Hand out to students copies of the text from suggested Web pages. I recommend that you hand out only one reading selection at a time so as not to overwhelm students with mere amount. Prepare transparency copies of the same selections. Vary the reading methods. One suggestion is to use the ERT (Everyone Read To) method of reading as suggested and described by Patricia Cunningham in THE TEACHER'S GUIDE TO THE FOUR BLOCKS, published by Carson-Delosa. Partner reading is another option. Pair a stronger reader with a reluctant reader. The partners take turns reading the passage aloud and then discuss it before engaging in a class discussion.

(3) After each text selection is read, guide students through a class discussion that will accomplish three important things.
(a) Picking out the essential message, supporting details and facts, as it pertains to the needs of this lesson, and the summative assessment. (The discussion will help establish inferential meaning and conclusions from the text.)
(b) Highlighting the essentials within the text. (You will supply the exemplar for the students as you highlight the transparency copy on the overhead.)
(c) Model for students how to organize the information from the multiple sources by completing on chart paper the T-chart which is like their What Worked Well? handout sheet.

(4) Give students time to work with a partner to enter onto their timelines events covered today. Students will self-assess their timelines, as various students add the same events to the classroom timeline.

(5) Ask students where they think today’s highlighted reading materials and completed What Worked Well graphic organizer should be filed in the Colonial Notebook. Direct students to spot-check a neighbor with the question: Where in the notebook do we file our items? Student input and buddy check should produce items being put away in the Noteworthy Information section.

(6) When all ideas have been discussed, play the card game that was played at the beginning of this lesson again. Compare students' responses now with what had been recorded on the chart at the start of the lesson.

(7) End the lesson by saying: Let us show the supplies we loaded onto our ship today by filling two cargo areas in the hull of our ship. Choose two students to cover the appropriate areas with the labeled, corresponding colored construction paper pieces, Helps and Hindrances of Roanoke and Helps and Hindrances of Jamestown.

Assessments

These formative assessments lead to summatives at the end of the Unit Plan: A Colony Is Born.

The Graphic Organizer will formatively assess the students’ abilities.

FOR SCORING: To assess if a student is successful and to what level, check the accuracy of identifying what did and did not work for the early settlers of the Roanoke and Jamestown colonies and how the information was managed within the parameters of the graphic organizer.

The Timeline will formatively assess the students’ abilities.

FOR SCORING: To assess if a student is successful and to what level, check the timeline for accuracy of identifying significant events and properly placing and labeling each on the timeline.

The Notebook will formatively assess the students’ abilities.

FOR SCORING: To assess if student is successful and to what level, check the notebook for accuracy of placing handouts within the proper tab of the notebook and in the correct order within that section.

The activity page Defend Thy Self will formatively assess the students’ abilities.

The activity page $64,000 Dollar Questions, will formatively assess the students’ abilities.

Extensions

It is most helpful for the teacher to have prior knowledge of different reading methods, such as ERT (Everyone Read To) and Partner Reading as suggested and described by Patricia Cunningham in [The Teachers Guide to the Four Blocks], published by Carson-Delosa.

This is the fourth lesson of eleven in the Unit Plan: A Colony Is Born.
The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2962. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, Associated Files. This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).

NOTE: Learning Center Activities are OPTIONAL activities that are suggested as good teaching practices and strategies which will afford students various opportunities to practice application (Bloom's level three) of content and process. These activities are not included within the time allowance listed, as they are to be done as center activities during the course of the day. The centers are not a part of this lesson. They are EXTENSIONS.

(1) For practice with comparing primary and secondary sources and as formative assessment, have as a center activity, a response sheet for students to tell what difference there is in the primary and secondary sources used in this lesson. Because the text has already been read once by everyone in this lesson, this center will also serve to give students the opportunity to re-read familiar text, which is a recommended reading strategy. Have out on the table laminated copies of the selected readings you would like them to compare/contrast, or have students choose what they would like to compare/contrast about the accounts of the events.

(2) Complete and laminate a What Worked Well? T-chart. As a center activity, students will self-assess their note taking by comparing their T-charts with the model. Students may add or delete any bit of information, but it must be done with a writing implement that is a different color from their original entries. (For example, if they originally wrote in pencil, any changes must be made in ink, or if originally done in ink, add/delete in ink of a different color.) This will allow for you to formatively assess what notes students had put down during class discussion and modeling on the class chart, and what they still had to go back and add or fix. This nicely answers these formative questions for you: Are students learning to take notes effectively and completely? Will they have good resources to use for the summative assessment, which is open notebook? Do I see quality traits for resource managers being developed? Who needs help? In what way can I direct my instruction to assure improvement?

(3) As a Learning Center Activity for students, there is an online test they can take at the Jamestowne Society Web site at www.jamestowne.org/index.html. It is a fun thing to do and doesn’t take long. They simply read the question and click on the answer they think is correct. There is immediate feedback as to whether their response is right or wrong. They can repeat the test as often as they like. TRICK TO GET THERE: Once you get to the Web site, click on History of Jamestowne, click on Bibliography, scroll to the bottom of the page and click on Next. This is coming in the back door because their front door is broken.

(4) The $64,000 Dollar Questions: (In Associated File) What was the one thing left by the lost colony of Roanoke that could be considered a primary source giving evidence to their plight? What information does it give us about the colony, and why are there not more primary sources from the colonists of Roanoke? This can be placed in a learning center as an activity that students can work on during other guided reading lessons when the teacher is busy with other students, or it can be assigned as homework.

(5) The opinion sheet titled Defend Thy Self (In Associated File. There are two different formats from which to choose.) These have students thinking back to what had an influence on the severe difficulties the colonies of Roanoke and Jamestown suffered and that were covered in today’s lesson. This instrument for expressing personal evaluation (Bloom's highest level) of the causes of some of the difficulties that the colonists had to endure can be utilized in different ways. It can be placed in a Learning Center as an activity that students can work on during other guided reading lessons when the teacher is busy with other students, or it can be assigned as homework.

Web Links

This is an excellent site for acquiring copies written in original text of charters and documents dating from 1584 to 1612. Once you get to the site, click History of Jamestown, and then at the bottom of each page keep clicking Next. This will take you through some great pages for your guided reading lesson.
Jamestowne Society

Offers a wealth of information about Roanoke. Although brief, it gives both a primary and secondary source of information.
The Colony at Roanoke

Lengthy, but there is much to be learned from this site and is a major source of information for this lesson. Timeline re-accountings, narratives, and rich detail make it easy for students to evaluate and to interpret what they are reading.
The titleless web page

Particularly interesting because it gives reason rather than blame to many of the problems that the colonists suffered. Science research lends a hand to history and archaeology to present the reasons factor.
W & M News

Offers much about the history of Jamestown including, but not limited to, listings of the original colonists and their occupations, John Smith, sketches of the fort c.1609, maps, and a virtual walk through the site which is now being excavated.
A Brief History of Jamestown

Offers much about the history of Jamestown including, but not limited to, listings of the original colonists and their occupations, a first hand accounts timeline of events on the voyage of the Susan Constant, and observations by Master George Perry 1607.
Virtual Jamestown

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