Beacon Lesson Plan Library
Observing the Evidence
Lisa Ove Gibson Bay District Schools
Description
Students discuss ways to choose a representative sample of a large group in order to answer a class question and learn how to collect the data.
Objectives
The student writes notes, comments, and observations that reflect comprehension of fifthgrade or higher level content and experiences from a variety of media.
The student generates questions, collects responses, and displays data on a graph.
The student designs a survey to collect data.
The student as a class project, discusses ways to choose a sample representative of a large group such as a sample representative of the entire school.
Materials
The following site is a Student Web Lesson found on the Beacon site. Using it is optional.
Students use range, mean, median, and mode.
All That Data
http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=3105
Access to a computer lab or a single computer with presentation capabilities and Internet access
Data Detective Diary (used throughout the unit Data, Detectives, and Decision)
Long Answer Question Rubric (see associated file – Pg. 1)
Activity – Observing the Evidence (see associated file – Pgs. 2 – 5)
Mock Results of 4th and 5th Grade Teachers (see associated file – Pgs. 6 – 7)
Chart paper/writing device
Results from the teacher conducted survey of fourth and fifth grade teachers asking, How much time should the average fifthgrade student spend on homework to make good grades? (see Preparations steps #5  7)
Preparations
1. Using the information gained from diagnostic assessment for the unit Data, Detectives and Decisions, determine if the Student Web Lesson, All That Data! is warranted for this lesson plan.
2. Optional: Set up a presentation cart (with computer/television) and/or a computer lab to accommodate the online Student Web Lessons referenced in the Materials section of this lesson. Review the SWL All That Data! prior to instruction, if used with this lesson.
3. Prepare a large writing space in the front of the classroom to record comments/ideas generated during today's discussion (obtain appropriate writing tools).
4. Decide how you will use Activity – Observing the Evidence in the associated file. Options include, but are not limited to: administering a copy to each student for their organization or not using Activity – Observing the Evidence in any way.
Note: If your school does not have enough teachers to demonstrate a representative sample for steps #5 – 7 below, feel free to use the Mock Results of 4th and 5th Grade Teachers (see associated).
5. CONDUCT an actual survey of 4th and 5th grade teachers in your school asking, How much time (per week) should the average 5th grade student spend on homework to make good grades? (This survey can be conducted: by a ballot in teacher’s boxes, through email, or verbally asking each teacher.)
6. Prepare a table containing the data responses from teachers.
7. Using the data collected in the teacher survey, prepare 2 stemandleaf plots illustrating the responses (show 4th grade teacher's responses in oneplot and 5th grade teacher's responses in the other plot).
8. Prepare a minilesson on fair and representative samples.
9. Create parameters for data collection for the today's student generated survey.
10. A prior commitment to interrupt other 5th grade classes should be secured by the teacher before the survey is conducted. If this method is not an option, find an alternative.
11. Optional: Select appropriate pages out of your classroom text or create mock results from another survey to allow students more practice with stemandleaf plots for homework.
Procedures
1. Review the correct answers from the previous day's lesson with students Opening the Case. In this homework assignment, students practiced using stemandleaf plots to find the range, mean, median, and mode. (Remember this assignment should not be graded because it was practice for the student.)
2. Based on yesterday's homework assignment, ask each student to choose and verbally describe which type of graph the information from the stemandleaf plot would best reveal the mean, median, and mode of the data (answers to expect Line graphs are not appropriate because they display data that changes over time. Bar graphs help to show comparison between items within a set of data, and circle graphs do a better job of showing percentages and relationships of the part to the whole.)
3. Present the results from the survey YOU conducted yesterday asking 4th and 5th grade teachers in your school, How much time should the average 5th grade student spend on homework to make good grades? (for an example, see associated file Pg. 6 Mock Results of 4th and 5th Grade Teachers).
4. Show students the created stemandleaf plots from the survey of 4th and 5th grade teachers, illustrating the responses. Show 4th grade teacher's responses in oneplot and 5th grade teacher's responses in the other plot (for an example, see associated file Mock Results of 4th and 5th Grade Teachers).
5. Practice concepts from Lesson 1: Ask students to identify on their own papers the range and measures of central tendency from each stemandleaf plot from the teacher's survey. Provide proper feedback for students by conferring with them in an individual conference or through a whole class discussion. Make sure they comprehend the relationships between stemandleaf plots, range, and measures of central tendency and that they accurately identify each. For more detailed information about stemandleaf plots, see the Web addresses in the WEBLINKS section of this document). This is not a diary entry.
6. Practice concepts from lesson 1: Then on the same piece of paper ask students to respond to this prompt, Explain the relationship between each kind of graph (bar, circle, or line graphs) and the measures of central tendency. Remember formative feedback from the teacher is vital parts of the instructional process…guide students toward the target. This is not a diary entry.
7. Present the data responses collected from the 4th and 5th grade teachers and ask students, How could I have found a sample that would represent ALL the 4th and 5th grade teachers in the county? Conduct a class discussion. If students do not know what a representative sample is, explain that this type of sample usually REPRESENTS most of the people from that group (a.k.a. population) as accurately as possible without asking every single person. Possible answers: 1) Send out an email from the Superintendent’s office asking 4th and 5th grade teachers to respond to the survey. 2) Send each elementary school in the county a letter requesting appropriate teachers to respond to the survey. OR 3) Call each elementary school during planning time and request appropriate teachers respond to the survey, etc.
8. Discuss students' ideas and lead them to see the need for a fair (unbiased) and representative sample (a sample intended to be representative of a whole populationalso known as a cross section).
9. Introduce students to the LongAnswer Question Rubric (see associated file). Go over each level of achievement 40 and entertain student’s questions about the rubric
10. Assign Detective Diary Entry #4, How can we find a representative sample of 5th grade students for our survey? Instruct students to write their responses in paragraph format. Check each student's response.
11. Inform students that they will conduct a new survey that should be REPRESENTATIVE of EVERY 5th grader concerning the original question, How much time should the average 5th grade student spend on homework to make good grades?
12. Assign Detective Diary Entry #5, What question(s) would you ask in your survey? After students have had an opportunity to finish their entries, make sure that each student's questions would lead him or her to a response that would provide a representative sample of their fellow students.
13. Assign each student to a group (with no more than 4 members). Utilize your own methods for cooperative group work in order to ensure ontask behavior from students.
14. While in their groups, ask each group to decide which questions from DD#5 should be used in their surveys. Allow students enough time for completion.
15. As a class, students’ peerassess diary entries #4 and #5 using the criteria listed on the LongAnswer Question Rubric (see associated file).
16. Explain each group's responsibilities for collecting data (representative sample of 5th grade students). Each member will survey six 5th grade students from the school. Ask group members to make sure that they survey students who have not already been questioned for this project (in other words only one set of responses per student). A prior commitment to interrupt other 5th grade classes should be secured by the teacher before the survey is conducted. Students will use these results in tomorrow's lesson.
17. Optional: For homework, continue practicing bar and circle graphs, stemandleaf plots, range, mean, median, and mode as necessary. Again use appropriate pages out of your classroom text or create mock results from another survey and ask students to analyze the information and display the results in a stemandleaf plot.
Assessments
Practice:
1) Based on yesterday's homework assignment (text pages or mock survey results) ask each student to choose and verbally describe which type of graph the information would best reveal the mean, median, and mode of the data.
2) Ask students to identify on their own paper the range and measures of central tendency from each stemandleaf plot from the 4th/ 5th  grade teacher's survey. Provide proper feedback for students to make sure they comprehend the relationships between stemandleaf plots, range, and measures of central tendency and that they accurately identify each. Then on the same piece of paper ask students to respond to this prompt, Explain the relationship between each kind of graph (bar, circle, or line graphs) and the measures of central tendency. (These written assignments are not diary entries, but should be used to gauge student understanding of stemandleaf plots.)
Formative assessments:
3) Next students respond in their diary E#4, How can we find a representative sample of 5th grade students for our survey? A representative sample is representative of a whole populationalso known as a cross section.
4) Then students respond in their diary E#5, What question(s) would you ask in your survey?
5) After responding in their Detective Diaries (entries #4 and #5), students peerassess these entries using the criteria listed on the LongAnswer Question Rubric. Provide proper feedback for students to make sure they comprehend how and why there is a need for a fair and representative sample. Use the information gathered from observing student responses to guide future instruction.
6) Students take a representative sample of 5th grade students in their school and conduct a survey asking, How much time should the average 5th  grade student spend on homework to make good grades? Ask students to return with these results for tomorrow's lesson.
Extensions
This is the second lesson of the unit Data, Detectives and Decisions. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2942 . Once you select the unit’s link, scroll tot the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, “Associated Files.” This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).
Lesson 1 – Opening the Case
Web Links
This site offers an online math dictionary for educators and students. You want to check this out! A Maths Dictionary for Kids This site offers an online math dictionary for educators and students. You want to check this out! Harcout Math Glossary This site offers an excellent illustration of a stemandleaf plot and allows for interactive practice finding the mean, median, and mode of data using an Online stemandleaf plot. Making Stem and Leaf PlotsThis site is ABSOLUTELY awesome!! It allows students the opportunity to practice using data in a stemandleaf plot to find the mean, median, and mode. Stem – and – Leaf Plotter This site offers a demonstration lesson for teachers using stemandleaf plots. StemandLeaf Plots
