## Counting to One Hundred

### Sandi KingBay District Schools

#### Description

Counting to one hundred is a major achievement for kindergarteners. In this lesson, students refine their oral counting skills using a hundreds chart and pennies as manipluatives.

#### Objectives

The student counts orally to 100 or more by 1s, 2s, 5s, and 10s using a hundred chart or concrete materials.

#### Materials

- One hundreds chart (See associated file for information.)

- Numerals for hundreds chart

- 100 pennies

- Tens cards, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 (for lining up the numerals behind the correct ten)

- Ten resealable baggies

- Summative Assessment #1: Let's Count from the unit plan's associated files, one copy per student (See Extensions)

- Diagnostic Assessment from the unit plan's associated files, one per student (See Extensions)

#### Preparations

1. Draw, build, or purchase a hundreds chart. See the information in the associated file.

2. Make or purchase numerals for hundreds chart.

3. Collect 100 pennies. Place 9 pennies in one baggie. Place 10 pennies each in the remaining nine resealable baggies.

4. Make eleven large tens cards. Use colored construction paper, at least 8X10. Using a marker, write large numerals of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, one on each of the tens cards.

5. Plan how to best divide your students into groups. Consider behaviors as well as peers that can tutor others in their group. Since ten groups are needed, only two to three students will be in a group.

6. Download, print and duplicate the summative assessment, Let's Count, from the unit plan's associated files. (See Extensions.)

7. Download, print, and duplicate the diagnostic assessment from the unit's associated files. (See Extensions.)

#### Procedures

This lesson plan is the first mathematics lesson from the Beacon Unit Plan, Mr. President. It partially satisfies the selected GLE as this lesson only counts to one hundred by ones.

Note: This lesson is a review of counting skills and should be completed after the hundredth day of school. If you are using counting strategies similar to those from [Math Your Way] and students have been counting the days of school, this lesson gives additional strategies for counting and refining students' counting skills. If you have not been doing daily counting, this lesson will need opportunities for your students to learn to count orally to one hundred before proceeding.

Prior to beginning this unit, students will need to have completed the Diagnostic Assessment. See Extensions for further information.

Day 1
1. Put the large tens cards in a line on the floor in the correct counting order in a space large enough for students to sit behind each card.

* Give each student one numeral from your hundreds chart numerals (or ones written on 3X5 cards). You will not use all one hundred numerals, only a sampling.

* Each student in turn moves to group his/her numeral by sitting in a line behind the correct tens card. For example, the student with numeral 37 will sit behind the 30s card.

* Give corrective feedback, such as "No, look at the first part of your number. Now look at the cards on the floor. Which one starts like your numeral?" Or give affirmative feedback, such as "Right, your numeral starts with a 3 just like the 30. 37 is in the thirty’s group."

* This is whole group activity is meant to review students' understanding of numerals and our base 10 system of counting.

* Collect the cards for future use.

2. Divide the class into small groups. Give each group the hundreds chart numerals that belong to a tens group. For example, one group gets numerals 0–9. The next group gets numerals 10–19.

* Have the members of the group arrange the numerals in counting order behind the correct tens card on the floor.

* After all the groups have arranged their numerals, begin the oral counting.

* Each group will in turn say their numerals in order. For example, the first group will begin counting 0, 1, 2, 3, etc. until they get to 9. At this time the second group will begin counting 10, 11, etc. until the third group begins counting with 20.

* At the completion of this activity, each group will have the opportunity to count orally and to have listened to the counting pattern of 0 – 9 ten times.

3. Collect all counting manipulatives for use in future activities.

Day 2
1. Pass out the numbers that accompany your hundreds chart. Each student will have four to five numerals, depending on the number of students in the class, so each will have four to five turns to go to the chart.

* Using the hundreds chart, have students put the numbers on the chart in correct counting order counting by ones. As the students put their numbers on the chart, they must say the numerals aloud.

* As each new tens is revealed, give the students a reminder of why that tens comes next. For instance, when 10 is added to the chart, ask the student why the one is in front of the zero. Remind students that the one reminds them that they have already counted 0–9 one time. When the 20 is added, remind students that they have already counted 0–9 two times and that is why the two is in front of the zero.

* As students correctly place their numerals, give affirmative feedback, such as "Right. After 31 comes 32. That is a 3 then 2." If a mistake is made, corrective feedback should be given, such as "Look at the 31. It is a 3 and a 1. Three tells us we have already counted 0–9 three times. The 1 is what we are counting. Which numeral shows that we have counted 0–9 three times, and is said after 1 when counting?"

*At the end of this activity, students have completed the hundreds chart to 99. The teacher then produces the number 100 and inquires as to what the 1 in front of two zeros may mean.

* The hundreds chart and the tens pattern should assist students in coming to the conclusion that the 1 means that we have counted 0-99 one time. Place the 100 on the hundreds chart.

Day 3
Note: If you are doing this lesson as part of the Beacon unit, Mr. President, this activity should be completed the same day as the Beacon lesson plan, A Penny for Abe. In that social studies lesson, students learn that Abraham Lincoln is the president that is on a penny. Reinforce this fact as the students are counting their pennies.

1. Use pennies that have been placed in resealable type baggies.

* Divide the class into 10 groups. Give a baggie of pennies to each group.

* Hand each group one of the tens cards from day 1 activities, being certain to give the tens card with the 0 to the group with nine pennies.

* Begin counting orally with the group that has the 0 tens card. They count 1–9. The group with the 10 card begins orally counting with 10 and continues through 19. Follow the same procedure as used on day 2.

* This activity is counting orally without the aid of the numerals that were used on day 2, but instead is counting a one-to-one correspondence.

* Give corrective and affirmative feedback as each group counts.

Note: Begin the summative assessment of orally counting to one hundred by ONES anytime you feel a student is ready to count. This is an individual assessment. Some students will be ready on day 1, while others will not yet be ready on day 3 and will need further instruction or practice. Use the assessment tool Let's Count, Summative Assessment #1, that is part of the unit plan. See the Extensions section of this lesson plan for the link to the unit and assessments.

#### Assessments

1. The diagnostic assessment should be administered before any instructions are begun. See the Extensions section of this lesson plan for the link to the unit and assessments.

2. Students are formatively assessed daily during the counting activities. See the procedures for giving affirmative and corrective feedback in the procedures for each day.

3. Begin the summative assessment of orally counting to one hundred by ones anytime you feel that a student is ready to count. This is an individual assessment. Some students will be ready on day 1, while others will not yet be ready on day 3 and will need further instruction or practice. A tool for the summative assessment is available from the associated files that are part of the unit plan. (See Extensions.)

#### Extensions

1. This is the first mathematics lesson in the Beacon Unit Plan: Mr. President.

2. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2944. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, “Associated Files.” This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).

3. Preview the following book for additional ideas and strategies for teaching young children to count. Baratta-Lorton, Mary. [Math Your Way]. Menlo Park, CA. Addison-Wesley. 1995.

4. Using [Math Your Way] strategies during calendar time will enhance counting skills.