## Game Day Graphing

### Kevin Hall

#### Description

Students produce data tables and bar graphs from given sets of information and then analyze and explain the data displays.

#### Objectives

The student solves problems by generating, collecting, organizing, displaying, and analyzing data using histograms, bar graphs, circle graphs, line graphs, pictographs, and charts.

#### Materials

-Student Web Lessons, Kids Have Pets and How It All Stacks Up (See Weblinks)
-Computers to access Web lessons
-Chalkboard
-Sports section of local newspaper (one for every two students)
-Pencil and paper (lined or graph)

#### Preparations

1. Gather statistic sheets from the sports section of a local newspaper.
2. Review data table and bar graph formats. (See sample in Associated File)
3. Check the Internet computer station(s) to verify connectivity.

#### Procedures

BACKGROUND: Before the lesson, give students the opportunity to complete the Web lessons, Kids Have Pets and How It All Stacks Up. (See Weblinks) After completing these lessons, have students answer the following questions:
1. How can you collect data?
2. What are the different parts of a bar graph?
3. How do bar graphs help us solve problems?
If it is not possible for students to complete these lessons online, provide information that reviews the parts of bar graphs, how to collect data and build bar graphs, and the rationale for using bar graphs to solve problems.

1. Review answers to the question, “How can you collect data?” Have students review the statistics page from the sports section of the newspaper. Explain that writers have collected this data from the various games and events taking place during the week. Ask them, “What statements can you make based on the data you see?” (Solicit answers from students which highlight how factual statements are made from lists of data.)

2. Ask the students, “What would help us understand this data better?” If necessary, lead them to see the importance of using graphs to create “pictures” of the data. Explain that the class will be creating data tables and bar graphs from lists of information in order to help them analyze and explain data to others.

3. Exercise #1: On the chalkboard, model the creation of a data table and bar graph using the following NFL teams and the number of touchdowns in their last game. (NOTE: Other statistics may be used to accommodate the teacher's sport preference.)

Given the following list, ask students how they would create a data table to represent the information.
Steelers 3
Packers 7
Jaguars 4
Vikings 3
Dolphins 5

After creating the data table, ask the students, “What are the different parts of a bar graph?” Solicit answers from them, and invite their input to determine the title, labels, bars, and scale.

4. Have the students produce the table and graph on their paper while you create them on the chalkboard. After generating the data table and bar graph, ask the students to analyze (carefully look at) the data and make 2-3 fact statements based on the data display. (i.e., Steelers and Vikings both scored the same number of touchdowns.)

5. Exercise #2: As a class, create another data table and bar graph as outlined above. This time, the students are given a list of NFL teams and the number of penalties they committed.

Steelers 4
Packers 1
Jaguars 6
Vikings 7
Dolphins 4

6. After completing the data table and bar graph, ask the students to analyze the data and make 2-3 fact statements based on the data display. (i.e., Dolphins and Steelers committed the same number of penalties. Packers committed the fewest penalties and Vikings the most penalties.)

7. Ask the students to predict the relationship they would expect to find between the number of touchdowns and the number of penalties made by each NFL team. For example, “Would a NFL team with a lot of touchdowns have a lot of penalties? Why or why not? Would a NFL team with a few touchdowns have a lot of penalties? Why or why not?”

8. Exercise #3: On the chalkboard, model how to create a double bar graph using the previous lists of information in order to see any relationships between touchdowns and penalties. Have the students produce the double bar graph on their paper while you create it on the board. Be sure to change the title and horizontal labels to reflect the new data display.

9. Again, ask the students to analyze the data and make 2-3 fact statements based on the new data display. Encourage them to explain any relationships they see between the number of touchdowns and the number of penalties made by each NFL team.

10. Using the first three exercises as guides, pair the students and have them create their own bar graphs and double bar graphs from the following data tables. Have students write 2-3 fact statements for each graph generated. (During this time, circulate among the students to provide additional assistance and teaching as needed. Refer students back to models generated on the chalkboard and their paper.)

NFL Team and Number of Field Goals
Steelers 4
Packers 7
Jaguars 4
Vikings 3
Dolphins 2

NFL Team and Number of Fumbles
Steelers 2
Packers 1
Jaguars 4
Vikings 3
Dolphins 2

11. After students have completed their graphs, allow time for pairs of students to share fact statements generated from data displays. Clarify any misunderstandings about how to produce bar graphs and double bar graphs. Re-emphasize specific ways to analyze graphs in order to explain data displays to others.

#### Assessments

Given the following four data tables, students should select two and create two bar graphs and one double bar graph. Two or three fact statements explaining what the data displays reveal should follow each graph.

NFL Team and Touchdowns
Steelers 4
Packers 7
Jaguars 5
Vikings 1
Dolphins 0

NFL Team and Field Goals
Steelers 1
Packers 1
Jaguars 2
Vikings 0
Dolphins 2

NFL Team and Penalties
Steelers 7
Packers 1
Jaguars 4
Vikings 6
Dolphins 10

NFL Team and Fumbles
Steelers 4
Packers 1
Jaguars 2
Vikings 5
Dolphins 3

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
Bar Graphs should contain appropriate:
-Titles
-Horizontal labels
-Vertical labels
-Scales
-Accurate depiction of data
-Neat format (easy to read)

Written Responses:
-Fact statements accurately reflect data of first two graphs
-Reasonable relationships and connections between the two sets of data are explained

#### Extensions

1. Have students analyze the data for measures of central tendency (range, mean, median, mode).
2. Have students select a particular team to follow throughout the season. Have them collect data on an area of interest (touchdowns, homeruns, wins and losses) and then graph the results using line graphs, bar graphs, pictographs, etc. Students should analyze the results and explain the implications of the data display in a paragraph or oral presentation.