Beacon Lesson Plan Library

Moving to the Beat of the Heart

Sandi King
Bay District Schools

Description

Are you familiar with the thump of your heartbeat? In this lesson, students learn about the organs of the circulatory systems as they practice various study skills. Students learn how to establish their resting heart rates.

Objectives

The student understands explicit and implicit ideas and information in fourth-grade or higher texts (for example, knowing main idea or essential message, connecting important ideas with corresponding details, making inferences about information, distinguishing between significant and minor details, knowing chronological order of events).

The student reads and organizes information (for example, in outlines, timelines, graphic organizers) throughout a single source for a variety of purposes (for example, discovering models for own writing, making a report, conducting interviews, taking a test, performing a task).

The student writes notes, comments, and observations that reflect comprehension of fourth grade or higher level content and experiences from a variety of media.

The student knows that complex animals have specialized organs to carry out life processes.

The student knows the major organ systems of the human body.

The student understands the functions of various body systems.

The student knows that processes needed for life are carried out by the cells.

Materials

- Copies and transparency of the article, Blood is the Vehicle, from associated files (one copy per student plus the demonstration transparency)
- Copy of the questions that accompany the article, Blood is the Vehicle (one copy per student)
- Transparency of the graphic, Circulatory System, from the associated files
- Copy of the questions that accompany the Circulatory System graphic
- Copy of the instructions for the activity, The Rate of My Beat
- Transparency of the graphic organizer, Supplying the Cells
- Student science notebooks (made on day one for this unit)
- Overhead projector
- Transparency of the model outline from the associated files
- Copy of the Formative Assessment Checklist (see the Extensions section of this lesson plan)
- Vocabulary cards from the associated files
- Vocabulary words written on sentence strip
- Stethoscopes (optional)
- Large clock that has a second hand visible to the students
- A dictionary

Preparations

1. Download, print, and duplicate copies and transparency of the article, Blood is the Vehicle, from associated files. You need one copy per student plus the demonstration transparency.
2. Download, print, and duplicate copies of the questions that accompany the article, Blood is the Vehicle. You need one copy per student.
3. Download, print, and make a transparency of the graphic, Circulatory System, from the associated files.
4. Download and print a copy of the questions that accompany the Circulatory System graphic.
5. Download and print a copy of the instructions for the activity, The Rate of My Beat.
6. Download, print, and make a transparency of the graphic organizer, Supplying the Cells, from the associated files.
7. Locate student science notebooks that were made on day one of this unit.
8. Locate an overhead projector.
9. Download, print, and make a transparency of the model outline from the associated file.
10. Locate a copy of the Formative Assessment Checklist (see Extensions section of this lesson plan). This is the same checklist that has been being used throughout this unit.
11. Download, print, and cut apart the vocabulary cards from the associated file.
12. Write vocabulary on sentence strips.
13. Obtain stethoscopes, about one per every two students (optional). The American Heart Association provides stethoscopes to schools.
14. Obtain a large clock that has a second hand visible to the students.
15. Locate a dictionary.

Procedures

This lesson plan is to be used on day 7 of the unit, The Inside Story - Cells, Organs, and Systems of the Human Body. This is lesson plan six of twelve included in the unit. This lesson plan integrates reading, writing, and science.

Review

1. Review previous information about cells, tissue, organs, the digestive system, and the respiratory system. Be sure to have students use their science notebooks as a reference as you ask questions about previous activities in science, reading in the content area, and writing in their science notebooks. Specifically, be sure to ask questions from the previous readings to reinforce the new information and to continue checking for comprehension. As you are reviewing, be sure check for individual student’s understanding and mark the Formative Assessment Checklist that was begun on the first day of this unit. Give individualized feedback, both affirmative, “Yes, the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide is done in the alveloi.” and corrective, “You are on the right track, but let’s go one step further. When the trachea enters the lungs, it divides into two tubes. What were they called?”

Reading/Science -

Introduction

2. With the classroom in total silence, begin thumping your finger on your desk in a steady rate of about how you think your heart is beating. As you continue this steady thumping, ask students if they can guess which body system will be studied today. Tell students that as the day progresses, they will be discovering their own heart rates both resting and active.

3. Before students read the article, a study of the pronunciation of several words should be done.

* After writing the words on the board or chartpaper, use the dictionary as a source for finding the pronunciation of these vocabulary words: systemic, pulmonary, artery, capillaries, and plasma.

* The words and pronunciations should remain on the board for student reference while reading the article.

* Since comprehension of these vocabulary words should be gained from reading the article, no definition study should be done at this time.

4. As a reading activity, students silently read the article, Blood is the Vehicle. Before reading, alert students that they are reading for the purpose of discovering the differences between vessels, arteries, veins, and capillaries.

* Pass out individual copies of the article, Blood is the Vehicle, and display a large projection of the article using the overhead. Allow about five minutes for students to read the article.

* As students are reading, orally praise any students who have gotten out a piece of paper and are making notes or drawing a graphic organizer.

* After students have completed the reading, students write responses to the comprehension questions concerning the article. These comprehension questions ask about the main idea, supporting facts, and details concerning vessels, arteries, veins, and capillaries as well as explicit and implicit information gathered from the article.

* Upon completion of the written responses to the questions, orally go over the comprehension responses, formative feedback should be given as you mark the Formative Assessment Checklist from the associated files. Use the checklist to note individual students who had problems with the content on previous days and be sure to direct specific questions to these students. Mark your checklist as to their ability to answer today’s questions. Be sure to give corrective and affirmative feedback. Corrective feedback might include responses such as, “No, capillaries can have oxygen or carbon dioxide. What is the special job of the capillaries that they could have either?” Affirmative feedback might include responses such as, ”That’s it! Capillaries carry oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide away from the cells. Both of these gasses pass through the capillaries.”


Writing –

5. Remind students of how they organized the science information in their science notebooks (outline, paragraph, and illustration). Have students put their science notebooks on their desks. On the table of contents page, make the entry “Circulatory System – page 13." Have the students turn and, looking at yesterday’s outline, review the rules of outlining.

* Since the students will be writing the outline without seeing your model first, orally solicit entries to the outline from the students. Orally discuss the main facts that should be included. As the facts are given, elicit details that should be included on the outline.

* After the oral discussion of today’s outline, students turn to page 13 of the science notebook and write their outline independently. Allow about ten minutes for students to write their outlines. As they are writing, circulate around the room giving feedback to students as to the setup of their outlines (proper numbering and indenting) and the correct correlation between the facts and details. Use this as a teaching opportunity by assisting students as needed. The criteria on the rubric states that the information is well organized into an outline. Well organized includes correct numbering and indentations.

* Upon completion of the outlines, display the sample outline. Have students compare the sample outline to their outlines as to the setup and content. Add to the sample if students explain additions that should be made. Remember the importance of students seeing you edit your work. If students suggest a better or more descriptive word, make the change. If students suggest another fact or detail, discuss the merits of the addition, and if appropriate, make the change. This modeling of editing your work is important for the students to witness. It encourages students to edit their own work.

* Upon completion of the editing, refer to the rubric that is in the back of the students' science notebooks. Discuss your model outline in terms of the criteria from the rubric. Make any editing changes that may still be necessary in order to receive that excellent rating for today’s outline. Be sure to explain why these changes need to be made. It is important for the teacher to model this editing procedure using the rubric to encourage self-evaluation using the rubric.

* Science notebooks are put aside, but will be used again after the activity.

Science –

6. Display the transparency, Circulatory System #1. Discuss the flow of blood to and from the heart. Point out the various organs of the circulatory system including the heart, arteries, and veins. Be sure to elicit responses as to whether the blood is oxygen rich or poor at the various stages of circulation.

7. Display the transparency, Circulation System #2 as you ask questions from the article concerning the flow of blood. Specifically ask about the differences in the vessels, arteries, veins, and capillaries. See the associated files for sample questions. Keep the graphic displayed throughout the remainder of the science activities to serve as a reference.

8. Pass out the vocabulary cards and definitions. Ask for the vocabulary card for the main organ of the circulatory system (heart). When that vocabulary card is produced, ask for the definition that is associated with that organ. Pair these two as you display them on the board or in a pocket chart. Continue in sequence down the circulatory system until all vocabulary cards and definitions have been matched and displayed. The vocabulary cards are added to the unit word wall. For the word wall, you may use the printed cards from the associated files, or make ones using sentence strip. The display and size needed will dictate which method to use.

9. The Rate of My Beat
The purpose of this activity is for students to have a hands-on experience with finding their resting heart rates. Follow the directions on The Rate of My Beat Instructions from the associated files.

10. As the students are cleaning up, conduct a formative assessment by individually questioning students as to how food, water, and oxygen enters our cells and how carbon dioxide and other wastes are removed. Be sure to include the roles of the various organs of the circulatory system. Give corrective and affirmative oral feedback as you are marking the Formative Assessment Checklist.

Writing –

11. Students have read about the circulatory system, written an outline of the information, and participated in finding their resting heart rates. They should be ready to complete today’s science notebook entries. Students write a paragraph about the new science knowledge learned today following the Florida Writes models of main idea, facts, and supporting details that you have modeled for the past 5 days. The paragraph should contain notes about factual information, as well as comments and observations about what has been learned through today’s activities. Allow about 15 minutes for students to complete their writings. As they are writing, circulate around the room and using the criteria from the rubric, give oral formative feedback to individuals. Be sure students see you using the rubric as your guide. Give specific praise such as, “I see you have three details to support this fact.” and corrective feedback such as, “You need to add some details to support this fact.” The Formative Assessment Checklist is marked as appropriate.

Science/ Language Arts

12. The final activity for today’s lesson is the illustration that accompanies each day’s entry in the science notebook. The purpose of the illustration is to organize information for a variety of purposes. After removing the transparency of model graphic organizer, allow students about ten minutes to complete their illustration (graphic organizer) in their science notebooks. It is important to do the paragraph writing before the illustration since students may use excessive time on the illustration and not keep their focus on the modeling of the writing. Doing the writing first helps students remain focused.

13. After student graphic organizers are complete, display the transparency of the graphic organizer, Supplying the Cells. Discuss how this graphic organizer helps us to “see” and understand the sequence of our circulatory system. Compare the transparency graphic organizer to those the students have drawn.

14. Model using the rubric of criteria to self-assess the paragraph and illustration.

15. Inform students that science notebooks will be collected tomorrow and summatively assessed according to the criteria on the rubric. Encourage students to ask questions in preparation for tomorrow's assessment.

16. Science notebooks should be collected at this time. With the completion of this day’s entries in the science notebook, a formative assessment should be made of the students' entries in their notebooks. Feedback, guided by the rubric criteria, should be written in the notebook. Be sure to mark the Formative Assessment Checklist. This documentation will assist you in planning your next modeling and discussions as you strive to meet the needs of your students.

Assessments

1. Formative assessments are integrated in this lesson plan and are described in the procedures section of this lesson plan. Examples of affirmative and corrective oral feedback are also given. A Formative Assessment Checklist is available from the unit's associated files.

The importance of individual formative assessment cannot be overstated. It is this formative assessment that guides teacher planning and individual assistance to assure that all students are successful.

2. Formatively assess the science notebooks using the rubric criteria. This criteria should also generate affirmative and corrective feedback which is written in the notebook. Be sure to mark the checklist for future reference.

Extensions

1. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2966. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, “Associated Files.” This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).
2. The article can be read orally to assist students with reading problems.
3. The questions accompanying the article can be done orally or written.
4. The PE teacher can be included in the activity. During PE, students can take their resting heart rate, then preform various activities to determine the increase in their heart rate above the resting rate. See the Extensions section of The Rate of My Beat Instructions from the attached files for further variations of this activity.

Web Links

This site allows students to find their maximum heart rates after determining their resting heart rates.
Target Heart Rate Calculator, Britannica.com

This is a child oriented site with a graphic and facts about the circulatory system.
The Bundles of Energy, The Circulatory System

This site allows students to select the body system they would like to explore. Sites contain a wealth of information, graphics, and animations. Since all systems are represented here, adult supervision is strongly advised. Be sure to preview before allowing students to explore this site.
Inner Learning Online, The Human Anatomy Online

This site gives illustrations of the various body systems. Users select the system and are presented with various illustrations in which to name the organs. Since all systems are represented here, adult supervision is strongly advised. Be sure to preview before allowing students to explore this site.
Web Anatomy

Attached Files

Reading text and associated materials     File Extension: pdf

Graphics and associated materials     File Extension: pdf

Vocabulary     File Extension: pdf

Heart Rate activity     File Extension: pdf

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