Beacon Lesson Plan Library

On the Move

Sandi King
Bay District Schools

Description

Can you wiggle your ears? It takes control of the face muscles to wiggle your ears. In this lesson, students learn about the muscular system of the human body as they read articles and participate in activities. Study skills are stressed.

Objectives

The student understands explicit and implicit ideas and information in fourth-grade or higher texts (for example, knowing main idea or essential message, connecting important ideas with corresponding details, making inferences about information, distinguishing between significant and minor details, knowing chronological order of events).

The student reads and organizes information (for example, in outlines, timelines, graphic organizers) throughout a single source for a variety of purposes (for example, discovering models for own writing, making a report, conducting interviews, taking a test, performing a task).

The student writes notes, comments, and observations that reflect comprehension of fourth grade or higher level content and experiences from a variety of media.

The student knows that complex animals have specialized organs to carry out life processes.

The student knows the major organ systems of the human body.

The student understands the functions of various body systems.

The student knows that processes needed for life are carried out by the cells.

Materials

- Individual science books (if not available, any heavy books will do)
- Copies and transparency of the article, The Muscles in Me, from associated files (one copy per student plus the demonstration transparency)
- Copies of the comprehension questions that accompany the article, The Muscles in Me (one copy per student)
- Transparency of the graphic, Muscular System, from the associated files
- Copy of the questions that accompany the Muscular System graphic
- Copy of the instructions for the activity, Moving My Face
- Copies of the record sheet for the activity, Moving My Face (one per student)
- Student science notebooks (made on day one for this unit)
- Overhead projector
- Copy of the Formative Assessment Checklist (see the Extensions section of this lesson plan)
- Vocabulary cards from the associated files
- Vocabulary words written on sentence strip
- Copies of the Summative Assessment #2, Information Manager Rubric (one per student)
- Copies of Summative Assessment #5, Putting It All Together, Project Information and Rubric (one each document per student)
- A dictionary

Preparations

1. Download, print, and duplicate copies and transparency of the article, The Muscles in Me, from associated files. You need one copy per student plus the demonstration transparency.
2. Locate individual science books. If science books are not available, any heavy books will do. One book is needed for each student.
3. Download, print and make a transparency of the graphic, Muscular System, from the associated files.
4. Download and print a copy of the questions that accompany the Muscular System graphic.
5. Download and print a copy of the instructions for the activity, Moving My Face.
6. Download and print a copy of the record sheet for the activity, Moving My Face.
7. Locate student science notebooks that were made on day one of this unit.
8. Locate an overhead projector.
9. Locate a copy of the Formative Assessment Checklist (see Extensions section of this lesson plan). This is the same checklist that has been being used throughout this unit.
10. Download, print, and cut apart the vocabulary cards from the associated files.
11. Write vocabulary on sentence strip.
12. Locate a dictionary.
13. Download, print, and duplicate copies of Summative Assessment #2, Information Manager Rubric for each student. See the assessment section of this lesson plan for instructions, and the extension section of this lesson plan for a link to the unit and its attachments.
14. Download, print, and duplicate copies of Summative Assessment #5, Putting It All Together, Project Information and Rubric for each student. See the extension section of this lesson plan for a link to the unit and its attachments.

Procedures

This lesson plan is to be used on day 8 of the unit, The Inside Story - Cells, Organs, and Systems of the Human Body. This is lesson plan seven of twelve included in the unit. This lesson plan integrates reading, writing, and science.

Review

1. Review previous information about cells, tissue, organs, the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the circulatory system. Be sure to have students use their science notebooks as a reference as you ask questions about previous activities in science, reading in the content area, and writing in their science notebooks. Specifically, be sure to ask questions from the previous readings to reinforce the new information and to continue checking for comprehension. As you are reviewing, be sure check for individual student’s understanding and mark the Formative Assessment Checklist that was begun on the first day of this unit. Give individualized feedback, both affirmative, “You’re right! Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels.” and corrective, “Veins are blood vessels, but the blood in veins always flows to the heart. What are the blood vessels called that take blood away from the heart?”


Reading/Science -

Introduction

2. Ask students to take out their science books (or another heavy book if the science book is not available). Hold a contest to see which student can hold the science book in one hand, above their heads the longest. Elbows must remain straight.

* When the elbow bends, or the book is lowered below the head, students must sit down. Question students as to what organ/tissue of their arms became weak so that the book was lowered. Elicit the response that our arm muscles controlled whether we could hold the book.

* Discuss any misconceptions about the bone, arm, joint, or any other part of our arm having any control of holding the book. Ask leading questions such as, "How could we make that muscle stronger so we could hold the book up longer?" or "What makes some muscles stronger than others?" This activity encourages students to begin thinking about their muscles and sets the stage for instruction of the muscular system.

3. Words used in this article are decodable by most students. If your students need decoding assistance, before students read the article, a study of the pronunciation of vocabulary words could be done. Use the dictionary as a source for finding the pronunciation. Possible vocabulary words that may need decoding are: tendon, contract, cardiac, and striated. The words and pronunciations should be written on the board for student reference while reading the article. Since comprehension of these vocabulary words should be gained from reading the article, no definition study should be done at this time.

4. As a reading activity, students silently read the article, The Muscles in Me. Before reading alert students that they are reading for the purpose of finding information that could be asked in explicit questioning. Explain that explicit questions are ones whose answers are stated in the article.

* Pass out individual copies of the article, The Muscles in Me, and display a large projection of the article using the overhead. Allow about five minutes for students to read the article.

* As students are reading, orally praise any students who have gotten out a piece of paper and are making notes or drawing a graphic organizer.

* After students have completed the reading, students write three explicit questions. Allow about 5 minutes for this process.

* Upon completion of the written explicit questions, call on each student in turn to read one of his questions. Call on other students to answer the question. Discuss whether it is an explicit question, how they know it is or isn’t explicit, and have the student tell the location of the answer in the article.

* Formative feedback should be given to individual students as they ask explicit questions and as they answer those questions as you mark the Formative Assessment Checklist from the associated files. Use the checklist to note individual students who had problems with the content on previous days and be sure to direct specific questions to these students. Mark your checklist as to their ability to ask and answer today’s questions. Be sure to give corrective and affirmative feedback. Corrective feedback might include responses such as, “No. We know that our heart muscle works involuntarily, but the article does not state that fact. It is not explicit information. Can you ask an explicit question?” Affirmative feedback might include responses such as, ”That’s it! Stomach muscles are smooth muscles.”


Writing –

5. Remind students of how they organized the science information in their science notebooks (outline, paragraph, and illustration). Have students put their science notebooks on their desks. On the table of contents page, make the entry “Muscular System – page 15." Have the students turn to look at yesterday’s outline, review the rules of outlining.

* Remind students that they will be receiving a grade on their outlines today. Review the rubric that is placed in their science notebooks as to the criteria you will be looking for when grading their outlines.

* Allow ten minutes for students to complete their outlines and close their notebook. Encourage proofreading using the rubric as a self-assessment tool.

* Science notebooks are put aside, but will be used again after the activity.

Science –

6. Display the transparency, Muscular System Graphic. Remind students that muscles are used in every action the body makes whether it is a voluntary action such as picking up their pencils, or an involuntary action such as our stomach muscles pushing food into our small intestines. See the associated files for sample questions. Keep the graphic displayed throughout the remainder of the science activities to serve as a reference.

7. Pass out the vocabulary cards and definitions. Ask for the vocabulary card for any of the specific word cards, order is not important. When that vocabulary card is produced, ask for the definition that is associated with that organ. Pair these two as you display them on the board or in a pocket chart. Continue until all vocabulary cards and definitions have been matched and displayed. The vocabulary cards are added to the unit word wall. For the word wall, you may use the printed cards from the associated files, or make ones using sentence strip. The display and size needed will dictate which method to use.

8. Moving My Face
The purpose of this activity is for students to have an opportunity to explore their own face muscles. Follow the directions on Moving My Face Instructions from the associated files.

9. Upon completion of the activity, conduct a formative assessment by questioning individual students as to how the various face muscles were moved. Be sure to include the roles of voluntary (muscles used on purpose such as for winking) and involuntary (such as muscles used when we blink) muscles. Give corrective and affirmative oral feedback as you are marking the Formative Assessment Checklist. Facts about muscles that need to be understood from this activity are:

* We have both voluntary and involuntary muscles.

* We all have the same muscles, but we have different levels of tone of these muscles. For instance, the left eyebrow muscle may be more toned then the right eyebrow muscle allowing the left eyebrow to be easily raised but the right eyebrow not to be raised at all. It is not lack of muscle, it is lack of muscle control and muscle tone.

* It is the muscles, not joint, jaw, chin, eye, etc. that cause movement. All movement of the body, inside and outside, is caused by muscle contractions.

* Muscles only contract and relax. They always pull, but cannot push.

Writing –

10. Students have read about the muscular system, written an outline of the information, and participated in exploring the muscles of their face. They should be ready to complete today’s science notebook entries. Remind students that this will be an independent writing and will be summatively assessed upon completion using the rubric in the back of the science notebooks. Students write a paragraph about the new science knowledge learned today following the Florida Writes models of main idea, facts, and supporting details that you have modeled for the past days. The paragraph should contain notes about factual information, as well as comments and observations about what has been learned through today’s activities. Allow about 15 minutes for students to complete their writings. Encourage students to use the criteria from their rubric to proofread and edit their paragraphs.

Science/ Language Arts

11. The final activity for today’s lesson is the graphic organizer (illustration) that accompanies each day’s entry in the science notebook. The purpose of the illustration is to organize information for a variety of purposes. Allow students about ten minutes to complete their illustration (graphic organizer) in their science notebooks. It is important to do the paragraph writing before the illustration since students may use excessive time on the illustration and not keep their focus on the modeling of the writing. Doing the writing first helps students remain focused.

12. After student graphic organizers are complete, collect the science notebooks for summative assessment. Use the rubric and scoring guide for summative assessment #2. Instructions for use are located in the unit attachments. See the extensions section of this lesson plan for a link to the unit.

13. Distribute the project information sheet and rubric for summative assessment #5. This performance based assessment will be due after the completion of the unit. Present the information at this half way point of the unit in order to give students ample time to plan and create their projects. Orally read and then discuss the project and the criteria required in the project. The project information form includes a parent response portion to assure that parents are aware of the assignment. The signed parent portion of the information sheet should be returned to school tomorrow and filed in the student's portfolio for future reference if needed. Be sure the student retains the top portion of the information sheet and rubric for use while creating the project.

Assessments

1. Formative assessments are integrated in this lesson plan and are described in the procedures section of this lesson plan. Examples of affirmative and corrective oral feedback are also given. A Formative Assessment Checklist is available from the unit's associated files

The importance of individual formative assessment cannot be overstated. It is this formative assessment that guides teacher planning and individual assistance to assure that all students are successful.

2. The second of five summative assessments for this unit is administered upon collection of today’s science notebooks. Summative Assessment #2, Information Managers, is downloadable from the unit plan. See the link above.

3. Introduce Summative Assessment #5 that will be due at the completion of the unit. Information and all necessary documents are downloadable from the unit plan. See the link in Extensions.

Extensions

1. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2966. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, “Associated Files.” This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).
2. The article can be read orally to assist students with reading problems.

Web Links

This is a child oriented site with a graphic and facts about the muscular system.
The Bundles of Energy, The Muscular System

This site allows students to select the body system they would like to explore. Sites contain a wealth of information, graphics, and animations. Since all systems are represented here, adult supervision is strongly advised. Be sure to preview before allowing students to explore this site.
Inner Learning Online, The Human Anatomy Online

This site gives further information about the muscular system including photos of the various types of muscle tissue.
Muscular System Britannica.com

Web Anatomy gives illustrations of the various body systems. Users select the system and are presented with various illustrations in which to name the organs. Since all systems are represented here, adult supervision is strongly advised. Be sure to preview before allowing students to explore this site.
Web Anatomy

Attached Files

Reading text and associated materials     File Extension: pdf

Graphics and associated materials     File Extension: pdf

Vocabulary     File Extension: pdf

Moving My Face activity     File Extension: pdf

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