Beacon Lesson Plan Library

What a Waste!

Sandi King
Bay District Schools

Description

How does the body keep its cells clean? Through reading in the content area, study skills, and various activities, students learn about the kidney, bladder, and function of the excretory (urinary) system.

Objectives

The student understands explicit and implicit ideas and information in fourth-grade or higher texts (for example, knowing main idea or essential message, connecting important ideas with corresponding details, making inferences about information, distinguishing between significant and minor details, knowing chronological order of events).

The student reads and organizes information (for example, in outlines, timelines, graphic organizers) throughout a single source for a variety of purposes (for example, discovering models for own writing, making a report, conducting interviews, taking a test, performing a task).

The student writes notes, comments, and observations that reflect comprehension of fourth grade or higher level content and experiences from a variety of media.

The student knows that complex animals have specialized organs to carry out life processes.

The student knows the major organ systems of the human body.

The student understands the functions of various body systems.

The student knows that processes needed for life are carried out by the cells.

Materials

- Copies and transparency of the article, Too Much Water, from associated files (one copy per student plus the demonstration transparency)
- Copy of Possible Implicit Questions For the Article, Too Much Water
- Transparency of the graphic, Excretory (Urinary) System, from the associated files
- A dictionary
- Copy of the questions that accompany the Excretory (urinary) System graphic
- Transparency of the graphic organizer, Urinary
- Student science notebooks (made on day one for this unit)
- Overhead projector
- Transparency of the model outline from the associated files
- Copy of the Formative Assessment Checklist (see the Extensions section of this lesson plan)
- Vocabulary cards from the associated files
- Vocabulary words written on sentence strip
- One package of dried kidney beans
- One balloon per group of 3 students
- One funnel per group of 3 students
- One pint of water per group of 3 students

Preparations

1. Download, print, and duplicate copies and transparency of the article, Too Much Water, from associated files. You need one copy per student plus the demonstration transparency.
2. Download and print a copy of Possible Implicit Questions For the Article, Too Much Water to use as a reference and examples of implicit questions.
3. Download, print, and make a transparency of the outline for the article, Too Much Water.4. Download, print, and make a transparency of the graphic, Excretory (Urinary) System, from the associated files.
5. Download and print a copy of the questions that accompany the Excretory (Urinary) System graphic.
6. Locate a dictionary.
7. Download, print, and make a transparency of the graphic organizer, Excretory/Urinary.
8. Pass out the student science notebooks (made on day one for this unit).
9. Locate an overhead projector.
10. Download and copy of the Formative Assessment Checklist (see the Extensions section of this lesson plan). If you are using this lesson plan as part of the unit, The Inside Story, this Formative Assessment Checklist has been used daily.
11. Download, print, and cut apart the vocabulary cards from the associated files.
12. Write vocabulary words written on sentence strip.
13. Purchase one bag of dried kidney beans.
14. Purchase balloons, one per group of three students.
15. Locate funnels, one per group of three students.
16. Measure one pint of water per group of three students.

Procedures

This lesson plan is to be used on day 10 of the unit, The Inside Story - Cells, Organs, and Systems of the Human Body. This is lesson plan nine of twelve included in the unit.
This lesson plan integrates reading, writing, and science.

Review

1. Review previous information about cells, tissue, organs, and all systems studied previously. Review the implicit information and questioning.

*Be sure to have students use their science notebooks as a reference as you ask questions about previous activities in science, reading in the content area, and writing in their science notebooks.

* Specifically, be sure to ask questions from the previous readings to reinforce the new information and to continue checking for comprehension. Use the questions supplied in previous lesson plans as your source for review.

*As you are reviewing, check for individual student’s understanding and mark the Formative Assessment Checklist that was begun on the first day of this unit. Give individualized feedback, both affirmative, “Right, bone marrow is where the blood cells are made.” and corrective, “The skeletal system does more than hold our bodies up. It has four jobs. What other jobs does our skeletal system have?”

2. Review the requirements of Summative Assessment #5, the body systems project, which was introduced previously. Collect any parent signed portion of the information packet not collected yesterday.

Reading/Science -

Introduction –

3. Pass out two dried kidney beans to each student. Ask inquiry questions as to what body system students think may be taught today. Questions may include, “ Look at the items on your desk. They are a hint to the body system we will explore today. What body system do you think that might be?” “We are not eating these items, we are only thinking about their shape, color, and name. These items represent organs in your body. Do you know which organ?” Elicit responses that include the word “kidney." Once “kidney” has been established as the basic organ for today’s system, lead into the reading of the article to find out more about their kidneys and the body system to which they belong.

4. Before students read the article, a study of the pronunciation of vocabulary words should be done. Use the dictionary as a source for finding the pronunciation of these vocabulary words: excretory, urinary, kidney, ureters, urethra, urea, urine. The words and pronunciations should be written on the board for student reference while reading the article. Since comprehension of these vocabulary words should be gained from reading the article, no definition study should be done at this time.

5. As a reading activity, students silently read the article, Too Much Water. Before reading alert students that they are reading for the purpose of finding implicit information. Implicit means that the information is not stated in the article, but you can figure out the information from reading the article.

* This is the second day of our study of implicit questioning.

* Sample implicit questions are available from the associated files that can be used as a teaching reference or as examples for students.

* Examples of implicit questioning can be gotten from the comprehension questions from the first four lesson plans of this unit.

* Further examples of implicit questioning can be obtained from student’s implicit questions from yesterday’s lesson.

6. Pass out individual copies of the article, Too Much Water, and display a large projection of the article using the overhead. Allow about five minutes for students to read the article.

* As students are reading, orally praise any students who have gotten out a piece of paper and are making notes or drawing a graphic organizer.

7. After students have completed the reading, students write three questions about implicit information from the article. Remind students that implicit information is not stated in the article, but you learned it from something in the article. Allow about 5 minutes for students to write their questions. Since this is only their second attempt at locating implicit information, teacher assistance may still be necessary.

8. The skill of identifying and locating implicit information will be practiced again tomorrow, so this skill does not have to be mastered today, but it should be explored and many examples given. Student generated implicit questions are the best resource for teaching this skill. Students can decide if the question is implicit, what information from the article helps them figure out the implicit information, as well as the answer to the implicit question.

9. Upon completion of the written implicit questions, have students orally share one of their implicit questions. Dissect the question to see if it is implicit. Ask various students to answer the implicit questions and to locate the information from the article that implied the answer.

10. Formative feedback should be given as you mark the Formative Assessment Checklist from the associated files. Use the checklist to note individual students who had problems with the content on previous days and be sure to direct specific questions to these students. Mark your checklist as to their ability to locate implicit information as well as to answer today’s questions.

* Be sure to give corrective and affirmative feedback. Corrective feedback might include responses such as, “No. Our article tells us compact bone is shaped like a cylinder. It is not an implicit question!” Affirmative feedback might include responses such as, ”That’s right! You know the knee joint is a hinge because it only moves in one direction. Using that information, you figured out that the jaw joint is also a hinge joint because it only moves in one direction. The information we read about our knee joint led us to imply the information to our jaw joint.”

Writing –

11. Remind students of how they organized the science information in their science notebooks (outline, paragraph, and graphic organizer/illustration). Have students put their science notebooks on their desks. On the table of contents page, make the entry “Excretory (Urinary) System – page 19." Have the students turn to page 17 and looking at yesterday’s outline, review the rules of outlining.

12. Since the students will be writing the outlines without seeing your model first, orally solicit entries to the outline from the students. Orally discuss the main facts that should be included. As the facts are given, elicit details that should be included on the outlines.

13. After the oral discussion of today’s outline, students turn to page 19 of the science notebook and write their outlines independently. Allow about ten minutes for students to write their outlines. As they are writing, circulate around the room giving feedback to students as to the setup of their outlines (proper numbering and indenting) and the correct correlation between the facts and details. Use this as a teaching opportunity by assisting weak students identified by the formative assessment checklist. Upon completion of the outlines, display the sample outline. Have students compare the sample outline to their outlines as to the setup and content. Add to the model if students explain additions that should be made.

14. Remember the importance of students seeing you edit your work. If students suggest a better or more descriptive word, make the change. If students suggest another fact or detail, discuss the merits of the addition, and if appropriate, make the change. This modeling of editing your work is important for the students to witness. It encourages students to edit their own work.

15. Upon completion of the editing, refer to the rubric that is in the back of the student’s science notebooks. Discuss your model outline in terms of the criteria from the rubric. Make any editing changes that may still be necessary in order to receive that excellent rating for today’s outline. Be sure to explain why these changes need to be made. It is important for the teacher to model this editing procedure using the rubric to encourage self-evaluation using the rubric.

16. Tell students that their science notebooks will be assessed tomorrow using the rubric.

17. Science notebooks are put aside, but will be used again after the activity.

Science –

18. Display the transparency, Excretory (Urinary) System. Ask questions from the article concerning the excretory system specifically bladder, kidney, and urea. See the associated files for sample questions. Keep the graphic displayed throughout the remainder of the science activities to serve as a reference.

19. Display the vocabulary and definition cards. Call on a student to read a word card, and then match it to the definition that is associated with that word. Allow students to manually pair these two as they are placed on the display on the board or in a pocket chart. Continue in this manner until all vocabulary cards and definitions have been matched and displayed. The vocabulary cards are added to the unit word wall. For the word wall, you may use the printed cards from the associated files, or make ones using sentence strip. The display and size needed will dictate which method to use.

20. Full Bladder Activity
This activity can be completed as a small group activity with each group following the instructions from the associated files, or as a large group demonstration with the teacher selecting three student volunteers as assistants. All instructions are available from the associated files.

21. At the completion of the activity, conduct individual formative assessments of the components and function of our excretory/urinary system and their roles in keeping our cells alive. Give corrective and affirmative oral feedback as you are marking the Formative Assessment Checklist.

Writing –

22. Students have read about the excretory/urinary system, written an outline of the information, and participated in the Full Bladder activity. They should be ready to complete today’s science notebook entries.

* Students write a paragraph about the new science knowledge learned today following the Florida Writes models of main idea, facts, and supporting details that you have modeled previously.

* The paragraph should contain notes about factual information, as well as comments and observations about what has been learned through today’s activities. Allow about 15 minutes for students to complete their writings. As they are writing, circulate around the room, and using the criteria from the rubric, give oral formative feedback to individuals.

* Be sure students see you using the rubric as your guide. Give specific praise such as, “I see you have three details to support this fact.” and corrective feedback such as, “You need to add some details to support this fact.” The Formative Assessment Checklist is marked as appropriate.

23. Remind students that their science notebooks will be assessed tomorrow using the rubric.

Science/ Language Arts

24. The final activity for today’s lesson is the graphic organizer/illustration that accompanies each day’s entry in the science notebook. The purpose of the illustration is to organize information for a variety of purposes. Allow students about ten minutes to complete their illustration/graphic organizer in their science notebooks. It is important to do the paragraph writing before the graphic organizer since students may use excessive time on the illustration and not keep their focus on the writing. Doing the writing first helps students remain focused.

25. After student graphic organizers are complete, display the transparency of the graphic organizer, Excretory/Urinary. Compare the transparency graphic organizer to those the students have drawn discussing the variety of ideas of how to organize this information. Remind students that the purpose of a graphic organizer is to help them remember all the facts, so the individual graphic organizers will not be identical, but should be reminders of the same information.

26. Model using the rubric of criteria to self-assess the paragraph and illustration.

25. Remind students that tomorrow their science notebooks will be collected and the rubric will be used to assess tomorrow’s outline, paragraph, and graphic organizer. Give the opportunity for students to ask any questions concerning the three parts to the daily entries in the science notebook or to the rubric that will be used.

* Use the formative assessment checklist you have been keeping to address any concerns you have as to individual abilities. Individual students may need to be counseled with in order to address any deficit areas still remaining.

27. Science notebooks should be collected at this time. With the completion of this day’s entries in the science notebook, a formative assessment should be made of the student’s entries in their notebooks. Feedback, guided by the rubric criteria, should be written in the notebook. Be sure to mark the Formative Assessment Checklist for individual students. This documentation will assist you in planning your next modeling and discussions as you strive to meet the needs of your students.

* Remind students that you will be using the rubric to assess their notebooks today with written feedback in their notebook. Day after today, the assessment will once again be scored as it was for summative assessment #2.

28. Remind students again of the projects due for Summative Assessment #5. The date due should be written on the board. Oral reminders should be given daily.

Assessments

1. Formative assessments are integrated in this lesson plan and are described in the procedures section of this lesson plan. Examples of affirmative and corrective oral feedback are also given. A Formative Assessment Checklist is available from the unit's associated files.

The importance of individual formative assessment cannot be overstated. It is this formative assessment that guides teacher planning and individual assistance to assure that all students are successful.

2. Formatively assess the science notebooks using the rubric criteria. This criteria should also generate affirmative and corrective feedback which is written in the notebook. Be sure to mark the checklist for future reference.

Extensions

1. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2966. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, “Associated Files.” This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).
2. The article can be read orally to assist students with reading problems.
3. Encarta by Microsoft is a great reference for information on the various body systems.

Web Links

This link may be used as a teacher reference, or for student use for enrichment. Students should not be allowed to use sites without adult supervision as the graphics of some of the body systems are not appropriate for student use at this level. This is a child oriented site with a graphic and facts about the excretory (uniary) system3.
The Garbage Collector, The Excretory System

This link may be used as a teacher reference, or for student use for enrichment. Students should not be allowed to use sites without adult supervision as the graphics of some of the body systems are not appropriate for student use at this level.This site allows students to select the body system they would like to explore. Sites contain a wealth of information, graphics, and animations. Since all systems are represented here, adult supervision is strongly advised. Be sure to preview before allowing students to explore this site.
Inner Learning Online, The Human Anatomy Online

This link may be used as a teacher reference, or for student use for enrichment. Students should not be allowed to use sites without adult supervision as the graphics of some of the body systems are not appropriate for student use at this level. This site gives further information about the excretory (urinary) system.
Britannica.com, The Excretory System

This link may be used as a teacher reference, or for student use for enrichment. Students should not be allowed to use sites without adult supervision as the graphics of some of the body systems are not appropriate for student use at this level. This site gives illustrations of the various body systems. Users select the system and are presented with various illustrations in which to name the organs. Since all systems are represented here, adult supervision is strongly advised. Be sure to preview before allowing students to explore this site.
Web Anatomy

Attached Files

Reading text and associated materials     File Extension: pdf

Graphics and associated materials     File Extension: pdf

Vocabulary     File Extension: pdf

Full Bladder Activity     File Extension: pdf

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