Beacon Lesson Plan Library

Sunny Delight

Cathy Burgess
Bay District Schools

Description

Students are introduced to the scientific method to complete experiments on the sun and find out how heat from the sun has varying effects depending on the surface it strikes.

Objectives

The student uses simple reference material to obtain information (for example, table of contents, fiction and nonfiction books, picture dictionaries, audio visual software).

The student uses complete sentences in writing.

The student writes simple informational texts (for example, two-step instructions in sequence, directions, reports).

The student knows that heat from the Sun has varying effects depending on the surface it strikes.

The student knows and differentiates objects seen in the day and night sky (for example, clouds, Sun, stars, Moon, planets).

Materials

Day 4
-Two chocolate bars
-Suggested book, [Awesome Space], [The Sun and Other Stars], John Farndon, Aladdin Books Ltd, 2001
-Suggested book, [Who Gets the Sun out of Bed?] John Carlstrom, Little, Brown and Company, 1992
-Candle
-Matches
-“Big Round Sun” poem, written on chart paper
-“Mr. Sun” song, written on chart paper
-Suggested song, “Mr. Sun,” [Singable Songs for the Very Young] CD, Raffi, Troubadour Records Ltd, 1976
-Science journal (Began in lesson 1, Up in the Sky)
-Sun experiment #2 activity sheet (one copy to fill out together or make a transparency; see associated file)

Day 5
--“Big Round Sun” poem, written on chart paper
-“Mr. Sun” song, written on chart paper
-Suggested book, [Sunshine Makes the Seasons], by Thomas Y Branley, Crowell Junior Books, 1985
-Clock
-Calendar
-Orange
-Pencil
-Flashlight
-Sun mobile (from lesson 1, Up in the Sky)
-Chalkboard or dry erase board
-Sun experiment #3 activity sheet (one to fill out together or make a transparency; see associated file)
-Science journals (Began in lesson 1, Up in the Sky)

Preparations

Teacher Preparation

Day 4
1. Gather the books, [Awesome Space], [The Sun and Other Stars], and [Who Gets the Sun out of Bed?] (and/or other books about the sun), have them ready to read.

2. Gather an encyclopedia, dictionary, and non-fiction space books.

3. Gather these materials for sun experiment #2: two chocolate bars, bright sunshine, and a tree with shade.

4. Gather candle and matches to demonstrate energy from the sun.

5. Students need his/her own science journal, began in lesson 1, Up in the Sky.

6. Duplicate sun experiment #2 activity sheet or make a transparency. (see associated file)

7. Have “Mr. Sun” and “Big Round Sun” charts displayed.

Day 5
1. Gather the book, [Sunshine Makes the Seasons],(or other books about the sun and seasons) and have it out ready to read.

2. Gather materials for experiments: wood block, rock, orange, pencil, flashlight, clock and calendar.

3. Duplicate sun experiment #3 activity sheet or make a transparency. (See associated file)

4. Duplicate Calendar and Clock Classifying sheet. Cut into strips.

5. Duplicate calendar and clock signs and post in the room.

6. Students need their own science journals.

7. Have “Mr. Sun” and “Big Round Sun” charts displayed. These were begun in lesson one, Up in the Sky.

Procedures

Day 4 of Eye on the Sky unit.

Remind students to continue to observe the night sky and make journal entries.

1. Call students to circle time. Ask them to bring their science journals. Sing the song, “Mr. Sun,” and recite the poem, “Big Round Sun.” Remember to practice the hand motions.

2. Review yesterday’s lesson by asking students what they learned about the sun. Ask several students to read to you what they wrote in their journal about the sun experiment. Emphasize how the water in the dark can was much hotter than the water in the shiny can and how heat from the sun has different effects depending on the surface it strikes. If a student reads a sentence that doesn’t make sense, ask “Does that sentence make sense?” Ask what they can do to make that sentence a complete sentence? Use the sentence triangle to correct it together and make sure all the parts are there. If all the sentences in the science journals that are read aloud are complete sentences, tell students how smart they are and take apart a sentence using the sentence triangle for a good example of sentence writing.

3. Ask: When do we see the sun? Why is the sun important to Earth? Use guided questions to help students reach these understandings: Without heat from the sun, Earth would be too cold. Heat from the sun has different effects depending on the surface it strikes. We found that out from our experiment yesterday. The water in the black can was much hotter than the water in the shiny can. That is because the black can absorbed more sunlight. There is a difference in temperature because heat from the sun has different effects depending on the surface it strikes.

4. Tell students you want to demonstrate energy/heat from the sun. Use a candle to model the sun. Close the curtains and turn out the lights. Ask students to tell you what they see. Light the candle. (Note: Remind students not to use candles and matches without adult supervision.) Now have them tell what they can see. Have them describe the light source. (The candle is burning. It makes light, etc.) Read and discuss [Awesome Space],pages 4-9.

5. Place your hand near enough to the candle to feel the heat. Ask: What am I feeling when I do this? (It is hot.) Ask students to explain where the heat is coming from. (The burning candle makes heat.) Have students explain how the candle acts like the sun. (The sun is burning and it makes heat and light.)

6. Tell students you want to do another experiment with the sun. Say: Yesterday our conclusion was that the sun has different effects depending on the objects it strikes, so let’s do another one.

Ask: When you are outside playing, do you feel the sun’s heat? Is it hotter in some places than in other places? Have students explain this to you. Does temperature depend on the surface the sun strikes? Let’s see by taking two chocolate bars outside. We will put one under the tree in the shade and another one out in the bright sunshine and see what happens. Use the scientific method again to set the stage for the experiment. Fill out the sun experiment #2 sheet/transparency together as you move along through the experiment.

*Problem. Does the surface that the sun strikes affect a chocolate bar? (Example)

*Hypothesis. The chocolate bar in the sun will melt faster than the chocolate bar in the shade. (Example)

*Control the variables. One chocolate bar is placed on a black sheet of construction paper in the sun and the other on a black sheet of construction paper under a tree in the shade. (Example)

*Test your hypothesis. Take the chocolate bars outside. Put one in the sun and the other in the shade. (Example)

*Collect your data. After an hour, check your chocolate bars to see if there is any change. Check it again later.

7. After the experiment is started, read [Who Gets the Sun out of Bed?] This is a fun story about the sun. After you read it, compare it to the other books you have read about the sun. Emphasize how some books are fiction, made up imagination or an invented story, and how some are nonfiction and give you information with facts. Show a dictionary, encyclopedia and the other sun-fact books for comparison. Talk about the use of both kinds of books.

8. Now have students do a class sun writing activity together. Write “sun” vertically. Tell students we are going to write words beginning with s, u, and n and make a complete sentence with each. Show students how to brainstorm different words for each letter and make a list on the board. Encourage them to use fact words and facts about the sun that they have learned thus far. After you do one together as a class, encourage students to write one on their own (if time allows). See if they are able to include fact words or facts about the sun in their poem. Circulate and observe students as they write. Work one-on-one with individuals who seem to be struggling. Have students share their sun writings. Hang them around the room with the sun marble paintings.

9. This is a good time to check on sun experiment #2.

* Collect your data. After an hour, check your chocolate bars to see if there is any change. Check it again later, if needed.

* Tell your conclusion. The chocolate bar in the sun melted faster than the bar in the shade because the sun is striking different surfaces. The chocolate bar under the shade tree is different from the chocolate bar in the sun. (Example)

* Compare the conclusion to the hypothesis. Compare your conclusion to the hypothesis. Were you correct? What did you learn? Formatively assess students’ answers. Listen for statements like:

* The chocolate bar in the sun melted faster because the sun is hotter there.

* The chocolate bar in the shade didn’t melt as fast because the sun is filtered through the trees.

* The sun has different effects on objects depending on the surface it strikes.

10. To end the lesson, have students make a report about experiment #2 in their journals. Ask them to specifically write about what the heat from the sun does on different objects it strikes. Students should attempt to use one of the reference materials in their work. Remind them that a simple report has

*A title

*Facts or true statements (From the reference material)

*Sequential order

*About four sentences

11. Remind them to write complete sentences. Show the triangle-writing chart and go back over the steps of writing a complete sentence.

* Remember it must make sense.

* The sentence needs a noun, which tells who or what the sentence is about. It’s a person, place or thing.

* It needs a verb that shows action or finishes the thought.

* The sentence needs an adjective that describes.

* Then add a, an, or the.

* Make sure you capitalize and punctuate.

Formatively assess student’s writing. Look for complete sentences and about how heat from the sun affects different surfaces or objects it strikes.



Day 5 of Eye in the Sky unit

**Remind students about the Night Watchers Club.

1. Call students to circle time. Sing “Mr. Song" and recite the poem, “Big Round Sun.” Hand out the sun writing activity students wrote on day 4. Call on several students to read their writing. Have students discuss both experiments and what they discovered. Additionally, review concepts to date.

2. Tell students you want to do one more experiment on heat from the sun. This time take a rock and a block of wood and set them out in the sun. Use the scientific method again to set the stage of the experiment. Fill out the sun experiment #3 sheet/transparency together as you move along through the experiment.

* Problem. Will the rock and the wood block have different temperatures after they are set out in the sun? (Example)

* Hypothesis. The wood block will be hotter than the rock. (Example)

* Control the variable. Place both objects side by side out in the direct sun. (Example)

* Test your hypothesis. Take them outside and place directly in the sun. (Example)

3. Introduce and read pages 3-18 in the book [Sunshine Makes the Seasons]. Discuss the role the sun plays with temperature on Earth during the different seasons. For example:

* We are warmer in the summer than in the winter and the amount of sunshine makes a difference.

* When it is cold we don’t get as many hours of sunshine. The days are shorter. It is winter.

* When the days are longer we get more hours of sunshine and it is warmer.

* When sunlight strikes the earth, the light changes into heat.

* Also ask students to raise their hand if they think this book is fiction or tells a story. (Formatively assess students raising their hand) Then ask students to raise their hand if they think this book gives facts or information. (Formatively assess students raising their hand) This book has simple reference material in it. You could use it to write a report. Give an example or two to illustrate.

4. Do the activity in [Sunshine Makes the Seasons] on pages 12-18. Keep the concept simple, focusing on time and how time helps organize their lives. Time is important because it helps us know when to get up in the morning, when to get to places, and when important events are happening. Go over how it takes one year for the earth to go around the sun. Use the sun mobile to demonstrate this. Discuss what students already know about time. Record responses on the board.

5. Show a calendar that has twelve months and name each of the months January- December. Calendars are the tool used to measure a whole year. It measures a year, a month, a week and days. Tell students a month equals 30 or 31 days. Ask a student when Christmas is. Show them the month of December on the calendar. Show them the week of Christmas. A week has seven days from Sunday to Saturday. So on a calendar count together the number of weeks in the month. Tell them Christmas Day is December 25th and circle it. Emphasize how the calendar shows a year, month, weeks, and days. Ask several students when their birthday month is. Locate it on the calendar. Determine how many weeks and days there are in that month. Do this with several birthdays.

6. Now refer back to [Sunshine Makes the Seasons], page 6. Discuss how Earth rotates around the sun and how day and night equal 24 hours. There are twenty-four hours in a day and a clock is the tool used to measure that. Talk about time and tell how a clock measures small amounts of time. It measures minutes and hours. Hold up a clock for them to see. Ask: Why do we need clocks? (Accept reasonable answers.) This is a good time to review day and night sky.

7. Talk about hours and minutes. Tell them minutes are short. Have students close their eyes as you time a minute. These tasks take about a minute:

*Get dressed

*Tie your shoes

*Eat ice cream

*Write the ABCs

Talk about how an hour is sixty minutes.

*Play a soccer game or baseball game

*Watch a video

*Wash a car

*Bake a cake

8. Now is a good time to practice selecting the appropriate tool for measuring calendars and clocks by classifying. Do this by showing the clock and the calendar picture. Tell students you will hand out slips with an activity on it. They will read the activity out loud one at a time and then decide if the appropriate tool for measuring time is a calendar or a clock. They will classify themselves in the correct category (stand beside the picture of the clock or in front of the calendar). Remember calendars measure large amounts of time like years, months, weeks and days and clocks measure smaller amounts of time like minutes and hours. Hours are longer than minutes.

9. Hand out slips and complete the activity. (Help those who have difficulty reading their slip). Formatively assess students as they classify themselves into the correct category. Give corrective feedback for those who choose the wrong answer.

10. This is a good time to check on the sun experiment #3.

* Collect your data. After an hour, check the rock and the block of wood to see if there has been any change in the surface temperature. Students can do this by simply touching the rock and wood.

* Tell your conclusion. The heat from the rock is hotter than the heat from the block of wood because of the surface. (Example)

* Compare the conclusion to the hypothesis. Were you correct? What did you learn? Formatively assess students' answers. Listen for statements like

The rock is hotter than the block of wood because the sun has different effects on them. The surface of the rock is ____________. (Example)

11. To end this lesson say: It took approximately one hour to conduct this sun experiment. Which tool would I use to measure an hour? (Formatively assess oral answers) In your journal, I want you to write about a report about this experiment. Remember reports must have: (Give students the report checklist.)

* A title

* About four sentences that make sense and are complete.

* The sentences must be facts and must be in order since it is about an experiment.

Be sure to use complete sentences that make sense and have a noun, verb, and adjectives.

* You can also draw a picture of the tool you would use to measure the amount of time it took to complete the experiment.

* Circulate and give feedback for students' answers. Go over checklist for formative feedback.

Assessments

Day 4
(Formatively assess that students know that heat from the sun has varying effects depending on the surface it strikes, by the answers they give in procedures #2, #9, and #10. Specifically look for how the sun has different effects on objects it strikes.

Formatively assess students' ability to use complete sentences in writing by observing sentences written in science journals in procedures #10 and 11. Specifically look for

* Complete sentences that make sense.

* A noun tells who or what the sentence is about. It’s a person place or thing.

* A verb that shows action or finishes the thought.

* An adjective that describes.

* The addition of a, an, or the.

* Capitalization and punctuation.

Formatively assess that students write simple informational texts from procedure #10. Check for a title, facts, about four sentences and order.

Formatively assess that students use simple reference material to obtain information on the sun in procedure #10. Look for students using the encyclopedia, dictionary, and factual books on the sun in their science journal entries. Model for students if they need it.


Day 5
Formatively assess that students know appropriate tools (clocks and calendar) for measuring time (including days, weeks, months) by observing if they classify themselves into the correct category for clocks and calendars in procedure #9.

Formatively assess students using complete sentences in writing by observing sentences written in science journals in procedure #11. Specifically look for

* Complete sentences that make sense.

* A noun tells who or what the sentence is about. It’s a person place or thing.

* A verb that shows action or finishes the thought.

* An adjective that describes.

* The addition of a, an, or the.

* Capitalization and punctuation.

Formatively assess that students know that heat from the sun has varying effects depending on the surface it strikes by the answers they write in their journals for procedure #11. Specifically look for how the sun has different effects on objects it strikes.

Formatively assess using the report checklist the student writes simple informational texts.

Extensions

1. Talk about sunburn and sunscreen and how heat from the sun can burn skin. You may want to try this experiment called, Sunscreen is Important! Make cutouts of a child shape from a dark piece of construction paper. Cover one with a piece of lighter paper (have it the same shape as the child shape. Explain that this is like sunscreen protection. Do not cover the other one. Place them in the sun. Later, go out and remove the covering and show how the colors are different. Explain how this shows that sunscreen is important, protects their skin, and that the sun is very strong.

2. Hot Sun Game. In this game the children circle around the 'hot sun." Pick one child to be the sun. The others form a circle with the sun in the center. While the music plays, the children move in a circle around the hot sun When the music stops, the child who is standing in front of the sun moves to the center and is the hot sun for the next round.

3. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page. (Or by using the URL http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2983. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, Attached Files. This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).

Web Links

Here is the place to order the sun mobile online.
Sun Mobile

Attached Files

Poems and Pictures for the lesson, Sunny Delight     File Extension: pdf

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