## Let's Make Fudge

### Kathy PetersBay District Schools

#### Description

Students work in small groups to read a recipe involving fractions, change recipe values, and create their own batches of fudge.

#### Objectives

The student reads and organizes information for a variety of purposes, including making a report, conducting interviews, taking a test, and performing an authentic task.

The student understands the relative size of whole numbers, commonly used fractions, decimals, and percents.

The student understands that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms using whole numbers, decimals, fractions, and percents.

The student selects the appropriate operation to solve specific problems involving addition, subtraction, and multiplication of whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, and division of whole numbers.

The student solves real-world problems involving length, weight, perimeter, area, capacity, volume, time, temperature, and angles.

#### Materials

-Computer with web access
-Online student lessons:
-Fabulous Fractions
-Flowering Fractions
-Attached file (Fudge Making Activity)
-Potholders
-Powdered sugar
-Cocoa
-Milk
-Margarine
-Vanilla
-Measuring cups
-Measuring spoons
-Bowls
-Eight-inch square pans (I usually use the disposable plastic type with lids)
-Mixing spoons
-Chart with job descriptions listed:
Measurer - Measures the ingredients.
Mixer - Combines and mixes the ingredients.
Supervisor - Looks over everyone's shoulder and makes sure things are being done properly.

#### Preparations

1. Assemble supplies: (I try to get these donated through parents and/or lunchroom) Powdered sugar, Cocoa, Milk, Margarine, Vanilla, Measuring cups, Measuring spoons, Bowls, Eight-inch square pans ( disposable plastic type with lids), Mixing spoons
2. Make chart of job descriptions and badges.
3. Download file: Making Fudge Activity (Let's Make Fudge and the Making Fudge Checklist) and make copies.
4. Make sure students have been taught measurement skills and have a good understanding of fractions: such as: ½ of ½ is ¼.
5. Students should have completed the following online student lessons:
-Fabulous Fractions
-Flowering Fractions
6. Prepare stations. The number of stations will depend on the number of students participating.

#### Procedures

Gain Attention:
Say to students, -Why do we need to learn about fractions?- List and discuss responses. Tell students, -Today, we are going to put our knowledge of fractions, measurement, and reading skills to good use. We are going to enter the world of food preparation, and all good chefs, moms, and even you, use these skills.-

Present Objectives and Relate to Present Knowledge:
Ask Students: Have you ever followed a recipe? If you have, you know you need a lot of knowledge. You need to know what abbreviations such as c., tsp., tbsp. and lb. mean. You need to have a good understanding of fractions. What does ½ mean? What does a ¼ of a cup look like? Do you know what ½ of 1 cup would be or ½ of ½ cup? Do you use a measuring cup or is a coffee cup just as good to measure with? Do you use a measuring spoon or will a cereal spoon work just as well? (Discuss these concepts in detail. As you are reviewing these concepts, list the abbreviations and their meanings on a chart or the chalkboard. Also, display the various measurement tools as you discuss them.)

Engage students in learning:
1. We are making fudge! You will each have a recipe to follow. (Pass out the recipes)

2. First, read and study the recipe.

3. Second, answer the questions on the bottom half of your recipe.

4. Then, show me your paper.

5. If you have understood and answered the questions correctly, you may wash your hands and enter a cooking station. We will have four people to a station and four job positions: Reader, Measurer, Mixer, and Supervisor. Everyone in the station is part of the cleanup crew.
Measurer - Measures the ingredients.
Mixer - Combines and mixes the ingredients.
Supervisor - Looks over everyone's shoulder and makes sure things are being done properly.

6. As you enter a station, pick up a station badge. They will be face down on the table.

7. When you have all of your job positions filled at your station, you need to read and discuss your Making Fudge Student and Teacher Checklist. This is your self-assessment and is very important.

8. Now, you may begin following your recipe. Remember, it is very important to follow the recipe correctly. You will be graded two ways:
A. The -Let's Make Fudge- recipe page must be correctly filled out.
B. You will also fill out a self-assessment checklist where you and your group members will assess your work together. The self-assessments are also in the stations. I need one assessment from each group. There is also a place on your assessment form for my own observations concerning your group. I will be watching and we all will be tasting our final products! Remember food preparation safety rules: always work with clean hands, use your utensils for measuring and stirring, and please, no fingers in the fudge. This only spreads germs. Have fun!

Provide for Practice and Provide Feedback:
It is a good idea to have more than one adult in the classroom for this activity. As the students are completing their -Let's Make Fudge- papers, you need to quickly check the papers. If papers are not correct, student are given the opportunity to go back and rework the incorrect responses. I have students fill each station as I approve their work, so those who complete the page quickly may start cooking. While the students are working, my helper and I circulate throughout the room to ensure everyone is on-task and the project is progressing smoothly. As groups finish cooking, I label their batch of fudge and we refrigerate it. We usually do this in the morning and then have a taste-test in the afternoon.

#### Assessments

The assessment is two-fold. Students must experience success on the -Let's Make Fudge- recipe page before they may enter a cooking station. The second assessment piece is a self-assessment checklist, with an area for teacher input. This is a formative assessment tool.

#### Extensions

An extension might be to allow each student to bring a favorite recipe from home. As a class, select recipes that can be made at school for a special lunch or afternoon treat time.