## Splash!

### Lore DavisAlachua County Schools

#### Description

Students use fish counters, fish stickers, numbers and symbols to solve joining (addition) problems.

#### Objectives

The student knows appropriate methods (for example, concrete materials, mental mathematics, paper and pencil) to solve real-world problems involving addition and subtraction.

#### Materials

-[Splash in the Ocean] adapted by Mik Zepol, Harcourt Brace, San Diego, CA, 1977.
-Bowls
-Dice
-Fish counters or manipulatives
-Fish stickers
-Board or overhead for demonstration
-Crayons or Markers (if desired)
-3 sheets of 8.5" x 11" construction paper in shades of blue for each student

#### Preparations

1. Preview the book [Splash in the Ocean] adapted by Mik Zepol, Harcourt Brace, San Diego, CA, 1977.
2. Gather materials needed as listed in the materials section.

#### Procedures

1. Read the book, [Splash in the Ocean] adapted by Mik Zepol to gain student interest.

2. Tell students that today they will be using fish counters, fish stickers and symbols to solve addition story problems.

3. Model an addition problem. Roll a die and place the designated number of fish counters on a piece of paper. Roll the die again and place that designated amount of fish counters in a group on the paper. Then verbalize the story problem (Example: Three fish were swimming in the ocean together. Three more fish joined them. There were six fish in all. Three plus three equals six.) Then, place the designated number of fish stickers on the paper in two different groups representing the number sentence. Tell students that the story problem can also be shown by using numbers and symbols. Write the first number under the first group of fish (3) and then explain that there is a special symbol that can be used that tells you that something is going to be added to that group. Write a plus sign and tell the students the name of the symbol (plus sign). Now write the number for the second group of fish (3). Point to each number and symbol as you restate the number sentence, three plus three. Then, tell students there is another symbol called an equal sign that tells how many in all. Restate the entire sentence. Three plus three equals six (3+3=6). Model one more problem. Allow students to "read" the number sentence.

4. Tell students that they will now have an opportunity to solve addition sentences using fish counters, fish stickers and symbols. Give each student a piece of paper, a pencil, a bowl of 15 fish counters and fish stickers. Roll a die and have the students complete the addition sentence first with fish counters and then with stickers. Finally, have them write the number sentence for the story problem. Make sure each student verbalizes the story problem so that you can check for understanding. Have each student do at least six story problems. Students who do not master the concept should be given additional opportunities to practice.

5. Review the lesson by having each student share one story problem with the group. This is a good time to assess mastery of the concept. Tell students that they will have more opportunities to create addition story problems on another day.

#### Assessments

Observe as students use fish counters, stickers, numbers and symbols to solve addition story problems.

Performance Assessment:
Have the student roll a die and place the designated number of fish counters on a piece of construction paper. Have the student roll again and place that designated number of fish on the paper. The student should then verbalize the story problem.

An example would be if the student rolled a six, the student should place six counters on the paper. Then, if the student rolled a two, the student should place two more fish on the paper and then tell a story, complete with the solution. An example might be: Six fish were swimming together in the ocean. Two more fish joined their school. There were eight fish in all. The student should then make a record of the story problem by placing six fish stickers on the paper and then adding two more fish in another group. The student should then write the number sentence below the stickers (6+2=8).

The student has mastered the concept if he/she can complete this activity completely and accurately. If the student can't accomplish the full task, the student needs extra reinforcement.

#### Extensions

1. Instead of using dice, have students use a number spinner and a different type of manipulative.

2. Students who are ready to move on can create their own story problems with stickers, pictures or picture stamps and then write the number sentences. They could then move beyond that to looking at number sentences and then showing the designated number of objects to model the number sentences.

3. Students working below grade level may need more time using only the manipulatives and no numbers until they grasp the concept of addition.

4. Students who are successful can then decorate their fish stories and number sentences with crayons or markers.