Beacon Lesson Plan Library

Buying and Budgets

Sandi King
Bay District Schools

Description

How do you decide if you can afford to buy something new? Using a budget lets you know where your money is being spent as well as how much money you have left to spend. In this lesson, students use tables to solve budget problems. Addition and subtraction of decimals are used in the problem-solving process.

Objectives

The student solves real-world problems involving the addition or subtraction of decimals (to hundredths) or common fractions with like or unlike denominators.

The student uses information from physical models, graphs, or tables to solve problems.

Materials

Day 1
- Student copies of the Diagnostic Assessment, Money Matters, from the unit’s associated files (See Extensions)

Day 2
- A newspaper ad for groceries
- Chalkboard or markerboard and chalk or markers
- Grocery List transparency from the master in the associated files
- An overhead projector
- Student copies of the Formative Assessment Checklist previously used in this unit from unit’s associated files (See Extensions)

Day 3
- Student copies of the worksheet, Addition with Decimals, from associated files
- A copy of the Addition with Decimals Key, from the associated files
- Student Web Lesson, Show Me the Money (See Weblinks)
- As many computers as possible that have Web connectivity

Day 4
- Transparency of Table Master from associated files
- An overhead projector
- Guidelines for Real-world Problem Scenarios from associated files
- Teacher written scenarios using the Guidelines for Real-world Problem Scenarios from the associated files as a model
- Transparency of Buying Lunch from associated files
- A copy of the Buying Lunch Key from associated files


Day 5
- Student copies of the worksheet, Using a Table, from associated files
- A copy of the Using a Table Key from the associated files
- Student Web Lesson, My Backpack (See Weblinks)
- As many computers as possible that have Web connectivity

Day 6
- One copy of the budget vocabulary from the associated files
- A transparency of the Governor’s Recommended Budget from the master in the associated files or a computer to display this table from the Web site (See Weblinks)
- An overhead projector
- Student copies of the Governor’s Recommended Budget from associated files
- Student copies of the worksheet, Spending the State’s Money, from the associated files
- One copy of Spending the State’s Money Teacher Key from the associated files
- If using the Governor’s Recommended Budget site, a computer with Web connectivity and a display device such as a TV connected to the computer or a projector (LCD) connected to the computer

Day 7
- Student copies of Diagnostic Assessment #4, Money Math, used on day one of the unit
- Transparency of Money Math
- An overhead projector

Day 8
- Student copies of Summative Assessment #3, The Budget, from the unit’s associated files

Day 9
- Student Web Lesson, Let’s Do Lunch (See Weblinks)
- As many computers as possible that have Web connectivity
- Students’ completed and scored copies of Summative Assessment #3, The Budget

Day 10
- Student copies of Summative Assessment #5, Florida Government at Work, from the unit’s associated files

Preparations

Day 1
1. Download, print, and duplicate student copies of the Diagnostic Assessment, Money Matters, from the unit’s associated files. (see Extensions).

Day 2
1. Obtain a newspaper ad for groceries.
2. Locate a chalkboard or markerboard and chalk or markers.
3. Download, print, and make a Grocery List transparency from the master in the associated files.
4. Locate an overhead projector.
5. Locate student copies of the Formative Assessment Checklist previously used in this unit. These were originally downloaded, printed, and duplicated from unit’s associated files. (See Extensions)


Day 3
1. Locate a catalog of items that students may be interested in purchasing. Suggestions are clothing, music, outdoor equipment, toys, etc. This catalog will be torn apart on day four, so be sure to select a disposable catalog.
2. Download, print, and duplicate student copies of the worksheet, Addition with Decimals, from associated files.
3. Download and print a copy of the Addition with Decimals Key, from the associated files.
4. Preview the Student Web Lesson, Show Me the Money. See Weblinks for the URL and link to the lesson.
5. Secure as many computers as possible that have Web connectivity. These can be in a lab setting or in the classroom. Students will be using the computers with a partner, so one computer per two students is ideal.

Day 4
1. Locate the same catalog used yesterday. Tear appropriate pages from the catalog. You will need one page per two students plus two extra to use as examples.
2. Download, print, and make a transparency of Table Master from associated files.
3. Locate an overhead projector.
4. Download and print one copy of Guidelines for Real-world Problem Scenarios from associated files.
5. Write scenarios using the Guidelines for Real-world Problem Scenarios from the associated files as a model. Your scenarios should be specific to the catalog you use.
6. Download, print, and make a transparency of Buying Lunch from associated files.
7. Download and print a copy of the Buying Lunch Key, from associated files.

Day 5
1. Download, print, and duplicate student copies of the worksheet, Using a Table, from associated files.
2. Download and print a copy of Using a Table Key, from the associated files.
3. Preview the Student Web Lesson, My Backpack. See Weblinks for the URL and link to the lesson.
4. Secure as many computers as possible that have Web connectivity. These can be in a lab setting or in the classroom. Students will be using the computers with a partner, so one computer per two students is ideal.

Day 6
1. Download and print one copy of the budget vocabulary from the associated files. Cut the vocabulary word and definition boxes so they can be added to the unit word wall.
2. Download, print, and make a transparency of the Governor’s Recommended Budget from the master in the associated files. An alternative to this transparency is the actual Website that contains this table and information. To use the Website, you must have access to a computer with Web connectivity and a display device such as a TV connected to the computer or a projector (LCD) connected to the computer. The URL for the Website is available from the Weblinks section of this lesson plan.
3. If using a transparency of the Governor’s Recommended Budget, locate an overhead projector.
4. Download, print, and duplicate student copies of the Governor’s Recommended Budget from associated files.
5. Download, print, and duplicate student copies of the worksheet, Spending the State’s Money that will be used as a formative assessment. This document is available from the associated files.
6. Download and print one copy of Spending the State’s Money Teacher Key from the associated files.

Day 7
1. Locate student copies of Diagnostic Assessment #4, Money Math, used on day one of the unit.
2. Download, print, and make a transparency of Money Math from the diagnostic assessment.
3. Locate an overhead projector.

Day 8
1. Download, print, and duplicate student copies of Summative Assessment #3, The Budget, from the unit’s associated files.

Day 9
1. Preview the Student Web Lesson, Let’s Do Lunch. See the Weblinks section of this lesson plan for the URL and link.
2. Secure as many computers as possible that have Web connectivity. These can be in a lab setting or in the classroom. Students will be using the computers with a partner, so one computer per two students is ideal.
3. Locate students’ completed and scored copies of Summative Assessment #3, The Budget.

Day 10
1. Download, print, and duplicate student copies of Summative Assessment #5, Florida Government at Work, from the unit’s associated files.

Procedures

Note: This is the fourth of nine lesson plans to the unit, We the People, and will begin on day one of the unit. Only math content is addressed in this ten-day lesson plan. Reading, social studies and writing standards are integrated with this unit and are addressed in coordinated lesson plans. See the Unit Plan Overview from the unit’s associated files for guidance in how to organize the teaching of the lesson plans.

Note: This lesson addresses addition and subtraction of decimals to the hundredths place, and the use of a table while solving a real-world problem. Since column addition is a skill taught in previous years, the skill will be reviewed, but not taught again.

Session 1 – (Day 1 of the unit)
Diagnostic Assessment

1. Begin by administering Diagnostic Assessment #4, Money Math. All instructions for administering the assessment as well as all tools needed are available from the unit’s associated files. Use the results of the diagnostic to modify the activities presented in this lesson plan to meet the needs of students. The diagnostic assessment will be reviewed and used as a study guide later in the lesson, so retain all copies of the assessment.

Session 2 – (Day 2 of the unit)
Adding columns with decimals

1. To gain students’ attention and to establish a real-world connection, tell students that you are going to stop by the grocery store after school and you are wondering if you have enough money to buy what you need.

2. From a newspaper advertisement, find the cost of two items and write the prices on the board. Be sure to include the dollar sign and decimals in the appropriate places. As you are writing, verbally model how and why to align the decimals. Add the two amounts and write the total in the appropriate place. Remember to include the dollar sign and decimal in the total.

3. Glance back at the newspaper advertisement and verbalize that you see another item you need. Erase the previous total and call on a student to come to the board and write the price of the addition item in the list of prices. As the student writes, give verbal feedback affirming the alignment of numerals and the decimal or guiding the student towards correct alignment.

4. Call on a different student to come to the board and add to find the total of all the prices in the list. As the student adds, give verbal feedback affirming correct adding procedures (adding the column on the right first and correct regrouping procedures) or guiding students toward these correct procedures.

5. When the student has completed the total, give feedback to affirm that the total is correctly written including the dollar sign and decimal, or guide students toward adding these two symbols.

6. Tell students that when adding numerals with decimals, it is necessary to have the decimals aligned in order to find the correct sum. Tell students that this is the skill they will be learning and practicing today.

7. Repeat the process of adding new items to the list by repeating procedures two through five. Call on many different students and continue your verbal feedback during this teaching and modeling procedure.

8. Repeat procedures two through five at least one more time. If some students are still having difficulty, individual conferences may be appropriate.

9. Have students get out one piece of notebook paper and a pencil.

10. Place the Grocery List transparency on the overhead.

11. Students read the transparency and write the math problem to show how much the items cost.

12. Completed papers are used as a formative assessment. Assess whether students aligned the numerals, aligned the decimals, included the dollar signs and decimals in the appropriate locations, and whether the total is correct. Write formative feedback to either affirm correct alignment and addition, or to guide students toward correct alignment and addition. Papers needing corrections should be returned to students. Individual conferences may be appropriate when returning the papers for corrections.

13. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

Session 3 (Day 3 of the unit)
Adding columns with decimals (continued)

1. Review addition with decimals by showing a newspaper advertisement or catalog received through the mail. Tell students that you are planning on buying some new clothes (or whatever is for sale in your catalog).

2. Call on individual students to come to the board and write the prices of various items as you describe them from the catalog. Call on other students to add the columns. Before selecting individuals, consult the Formative Assessment Checklist marked yesterday to determine which students may need practice aligning numerals and decimals and which students may need practice with column addition.

3. Continue selecting items from the catalog and calling on different individuals to align the numerals and decimals and find the sum, following the same procedure as yesterday.

4. After several examples of correct alignment and addition have been modeled, and verbal explanations and feedback given by the teacher, students are ready to do some individual practice. Students have two forms of practice activities to reinforce the numeral and decimal alignment and addition using decimals.

5. One form of practice is the completion of the interactive Student Web Lesson, Show Me the Money. This can be done in a lab setting if possible, or can be completed by pairs of students using classroom computers. See the Weblinks section of this lesson plan for the link to the Student Web Lesson. Web lessons are most effective if pairs of students work together to complete the lesson. This allows for peer interaction as the various problems are solved. It also keeps the partners honest, ensuring that they have correctly completed the Web lesson.

6. After completing the Web lesson, or as some students are completing the Web lesson, others should be completing the worksheet, Addition with Decimals, from the associated files. This worksheet is used as a formative assessment. See the teacher key from the associated files for answers and an explanation of the various problems and what to look for when assessing students’ abilities.

7. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

8. Return worksheets to students for correcting. It may be necessary to have individual or small group mini lessons to assist students in successfully completing the worksheet.

9. Since this is a formative assessment, no grade is given, but students should be retaught, either by the teacher or a peer, until all students are successful. Using peer tutors may be the best way to assist some students.

Session 4 (Day 4 of the unit)
Gathering data from tables.

1. In keeping with the buying theme of these math lessons (real-world problems using addition of decimals), begin today’s lesson by again displaying the catalog. Tell students that today, instead of adding each item individually; you will be creating a table of items you may want to buy. Then you can use the table to compare prices and make decisions of what you have enough money to buy.

2. Tell students that you will need their help in deciding which items from the catalog to buy and in completing the table.

3. Tear pages from the catalog and hand one page each to two students. Students will get distracted looking at the pages if you pass them all out, so only pass out two pages at this time. Ask students to select one item from their pages to place on the table as possible purchases.

4. Place the Table Master transparency on the overhead projector. As students tell which one item from their page of the catalog they would like to purchase, write the item and price on the transparency. Model how to align the numerals and decimals on the price side of the table. To make the writing process move faster, you may wish to write summary descriptions of the items, such as dress page 4 or shirt page 7.

5. After you have modeled the process for the first two items, give catalog pages to pairs of students. One partner decides what to buy, the other partner writes on the table. Again, students will become distracted if they have their catalog pages in hand, so have the stacks of pages near the overhead for a pair of students to pick up on their way to their turn to add an item on the table. As one partner makes a decision, the other writes. The next pair is then summoned to add to the table. This procedure not only introduces students to data on tables, but also allows for practice of numeral and decimal alignment.

6. When the table is complete, begin the questioning process, making students use the information on the table to solve your real-world problem scenarios. Scenarios should advance up the ladder of Bloom’s Taxonomy forcing students to use higher order thinking. For more information on Bloom’s Taxonomy, see the Weblinks section of this lesson plan. Guidelines for scenarios are available from the associated files.

7. As students use the table to solve the scenarios, give formative feedback affirming correct responses such as, “Yes, I see you compared the prices of the different shirts on the table to find your answer.” Also give guiding feedback when needed such as, “You did buy three items from the table, but you went over the $10.00 you could spend. Look again at the table. How can you decide what three items to buy that total $10.00 or less?” Remember that the standard says that the student uses information from the table to solve a problem, so when giving feedback address the use of the table to solve the problem.

8. Display the transparency, Buying Lunch on the overhead projector. Read the instructions to the students. Answer any questions.

9. Students read the scenarios and write their responses on notebook paper.

10. As students are completing the Buying Lunch assignment, circulate and formatively assess students’ ability to use information from the table to solve problems and to solve real-world problems involving addition of decimals. Give formative feedback and assist students having difficulty. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

11. Collect the completed papers and again use them to formatively assess the students’ ability to use information from the table to solve problems and to solve real-world problems involving addition of decimals. Adjust the marks on the Formative Assessment Checklist as appropriate.

Session 5 (Day 5 of the unit)
Gathering data from tables - continued


1. Begin the lesson by placing the Buying Lunch transparency back on the overhead projector. Pass back students’ papers. Orally review the activity. Be sure students understand that the data on the menu was used to solve the problems.

2. Students have two forms of practice activities to reinforce the use of information from tables to solve problems.

3. One form of practice is the completion of the interactive Student Web Lesson, My Backpack. This can be done in a lab setting if possible, or can be completed by pairs of students using classroom computers. See the Weblinks section of this lesson plan for the link to the Student Web Lesson. Web lessons are most effective if pairs of students work together to complete the lesson. This allows for peer interaction as the various problems are solved. It also keeps the partners honest, ensuring that they have correctly completed the Web lesson.

4. After completing the Web lesson, or as some students are completing the Web lesson, others should be completing the worksheet, Using a Table, from the associated files. This worksheet is used as a formative assessment. See the teacher key from the associated files for answers to various problems.

5. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

6. Return worksheets to students for correcting. It may be necessary to have individual or small group mini lessons to assist students in successfully completing the worksheet.

7. Since this is a formative assessment, no grade is given, but students should be retaught, either by the teacher or a peer, until all students are successful. Using peer tutors may be the best way to assist some students.

Session 6 (Day 6 of the unit)
Introduce the concept of a budget

1. As a reminder of what students have been learning and to tie these math skills with the other content area lessons, tell students that now that they can add and subtract decimals (money) and know how to use a table to find information, they will learn how the executive and legislative branches of government use these math skills. Tell students that today’s lesson will be about budgets.

2. Display the word budget on the board. Ask students what they think a budget may be. Allow for discussion as to the meaning of this word.

3. Integrate reading skills with the math content. Use the vocabulary skill of determining the meaning of words from the content. Orally share a couple of sentences using the word budget. See the associated files for examples.

4. Using the dictionary skills learned in the reading lesson plan from this unit, ask one student to look for the definition of a budget in the dictionary. Have the student read the definition and ask the class to determine if the definition read by the student matches how the word is being used in the examples. The class must come to consensus as to the definition that best matches the way budget is being used. The Merriam-Webster definition is printed with the budget vocabulary and is available from the associated files.

5. Display both the vocabulary word and definition on the unit word wall.

6. To bring this idea into the real-world for the students, ask if they were ever denied something they wanted from the store because mom said they couldn’t afford it, and yet she buys other things at the store. Have students wonder why there is enough money for some things, but not for others. Allow for discussion.

7. Tell students that the government has the very same problem. There are a lot of programs that are worth spending money on, like school buses and road repair, but never enough money for all that needs to be bought or done. To figure out what can be bought with the money the state has, the governor writes a budget. He shows how much money the state has and how he thinks it should be spent. Of course there are always many other things that the money could be spent on, but the governor must decide which are necessary, which are the most important, and which we would love to do if there were enough money. The governor must also know how much each thing costs to know whether the state has enough money. Once the governor completes the state budget, it is sent to congress for approval. Remind students that the executive branch (governor) recommends the budget, but the legislative branch (congress) can change the budget, or send it back to the governor for more work before they approve it,

8. Show the Florida state budget. See the Weblinks section for a link to the actual budget, or make a transparency of the 2003-2004 recommended budget from the associated files.

9. Dissect the form used to display this budget. Ask questions that help students better understand the budget.

· This budget is organized by agencies that our state gives money to. Each agency has its own budget, but the total needed by the agency is listed on the state budget.
· Both this year’s recommended budget and last year’s budget are shown so that the budgets can be compared.
· The column titled Positions tells how many jobs are needed at each agency. This is important to know because the state pays the salaries of the people who work for the agency. Salaries are part of the agencies’ budgets.
· The items in the Difference column that are shown in parentheses are amounts less than last year. If no parentheses are used, the amount is greater than last year. As an example, look at the totals in the difference column. The budget is for more money (no parentheses) than last year, but there will be fewer jobs (parentheses).
· Unlike normal addition, the totals are displayed at the top of the budget. This allows for viewing the overall total before looking at all the smaller pieces that make up the budget.

10. Now that students understand the budget form, tell them that they will be using their knowledge of how to use information from a table to solve problems.

11. Pass out the student copies of the Governor’s Recommended Budget and the formative assessment worksheet, Spending the State’s Money. Read the instructions to students. Answer any questions. Allow students ample time to complete the worksheet independently.

12. As students are working, circulate and formatively assess their ability to use the information from the table to solve the problems. Give feedback to affirm correct responses and corrective feedback to guide students towards the correct response.

13. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

14. Collect completed worksheets and use them for any further formative assessment that needs to occur to insure that all students have mastered the standard.

15. Return any worksheets that need further corrections to the students. Give further instruction or allow for peer tutoring to assist students who are still having difficulty mastering the skill.

16. Adjust the Formative Assessment Checklist as needed.

Session 7 (Day 7 of the unit)
Review for Summative Assessment #3

1. Inform students that tomorrow is their chance to show that they understand how to use information from a table to solve a problem, and that they can add and/or subtract numbers with decimals, in this case, money.

2. Return Diagnostic Assessment #4, Money Math, to students. Tell them that the assessment tomorrow will be similar to this one.

3. Use a transparency of the diagnostic assessment, Money Math, to demonstrate the correct procedures to finding the solutions to each problem. Involve students as much as possible in this activity by calling on individuals to discuss procedures, write on the transparency, and give solutions. Be sure students verbally explain their thinking procedures as well as writing the answers.

4. As the problems on Money Math are being solved, students should be making any corrections necessary to their individual copies of the paper.

5. Answer any questions students may have concerning the problems on Money Math or about the upcoming Summative Assessment #3, The Budget.

6. Students are encouraged to take Money Math home to use as a study guide for tomorrow’s assessment.

Session 8 (Day 8 of the unit)
Summative Assessment #3

1. Administer Summative Assessments #3, The Budget. Allow students time to complete the assessment independently. Then, collect the assessments.

2. Use the key and scoring guide that accompanies the assessment to assign a grade to the assessment.

Session 9 (Day 9 of the unit)
Review for final assessment

1. Return Summative Assessment #3, The Budget, to students. Answer any questions students may have concerning the assessment.

2. As a final review, have students complete the Student Web Lesson, Let’s Do Lunch. This can be done in a lab setting, or with students working as partners on computers. Peers working together serve as peer tutors and also helps keep each other honest about completing each problem, so even in a lab setting, use partners to complete the Student Web Lesson.

3. Inform students that tomorrow will be their final opportunity to demonstrate that they have mastered the standards. Answer any final questions.

Session 10 (Day 10 of the unit)
Final assessment

1. Administer the math portion of Summative Assessment #5. This assessment may be administered only to those students needing additional opportunities to demonstrate mastery, or may be administered to all students as further documentation. Use your Formative Assessment Checklist and previous assessments as a guide for the best use of this assessment.

2. If the math portion of Summative Assessment #5 is used, use the key and scoring guide that accompanies the assessment.

3. After scoring, the assessment is returned to the students for review. Feedback should be given as necessary.

Assessments

Diagnostic Assessment
Before the first teaching session, Diagnostic Assessment # 4, Money Math, is to be administered. This assessment is available from the unit’s associated files. All instructions and tools are contained in the file. See the Extensions section of this lesson plan for information on the unit.

Formative Assessment
Using various student-generated responses and worksheets provided in the associated files, students demonstrate their ability to add decimal notations, subtract decimal notation, and use information from a table when calculating an answer to a real-world problem. A Formative Assessment Checklist for recording individual students’ daily progress is available from the unit’s associated files. See the Extensions section of this lesson plan for information on the unit.


When marking the Formative Assessment Checklist, consider the following criteria:

The student solves real-world problems involving the addition or subtraction of decimals (to hundredths).
* Does the student add correctly?
* Does the student subtract correctly?
* Does the student line up the decimals when calculating?
* Does the student solve the stated problem?

The student uses information from physical models, graphs, or tables to solve problems.
* Does the student correctly use the table when solving the problem?

Summative Assessment
Students are administered two summative assessments for the targeted standards. On day eight, Summative Assessment #3, The Budget, is administered. On day ten of the unit, Summative Assessment #5, Florida Government at Work is administered. All instructions and tools for administering, evaluating, and scoring these summative assessments are available from the unit’s associated files. See the Extensions section of this lesson plan for more information.

Extensions

1. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=5197. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, Associated Files. This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files.
2. The textbook chapters on column addition and adding and subtraction using decimals may be used as additional resources.
3. The textbook chapter on using graphic organizers such as graphs and tables may be used as an additional resource.
4. The URL of the various Student Web Lessons can be sent home for additional practice at home and for home/school connections.
5. The use of a computer lab will speed the completion on the Student Web Lessons.
6. Make a connection between this math lesson and the writing lesson that is part of this unit. When completing the worksheet, Buying Lunch, on Day 4 of this lesson plan, discuss the use of punctuation used in the questions.

Web Links

1. This interactive Web lesson allows students to practice adding columns using decimals to the hundredths place. Emphasis is given on how to write the addends to align the decimals before adding.
Show Me the Money

2. This site is a teacher resource for Bloom's Taxomony and critical thinking strategies.
Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Bloom’s Taxonomy and Critical Thinking

3. Learn more about Bloom’s Taxonomy and higher levels of thinking through questioning from the teacher resource site.
a href=http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/bloom.htm>Strategic Reading, Bloom’s Taxonomy Questioning

4. Students use data from a table to solve real-world problems in this interactive Web lesson.
My Backpack

5. Using this interactive Web lesson, students use a menu to order lunches that meet various criteria.
Let’s Do Lunch

6. View the governor’s budget recommendations displayed by agencies. This site was used as a resource for the Florida’s Budget associated file used on day 6 of the unit.
Florida’s e-Budget

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