Beacon Lesson Plan Library

Water, Water, Everywhere

Laurie Ayers
Bay District Schools

Description

This lesson is for Days 2 and 3 of the unit, Bedlam in Bedrock. Students explore the concept of change and associate it with changes in their lives, in nature, and eventually with changes in the Earth's water cycle.

Objectives

The student knows that approximately 75 percent of the surface of the Earth is covered by water.

The student understands the stages of the water cycle (for example, evaporation, condensation, precipitation).

The student uses sketches, diagrams and models to understand scientific ideas.

The student uses reference materials to obtain information related to science concepts.

Materials

Day 1
-Diagnostic Assessment, one copy per student (see extensions)
-Earth Explorer Journal cover, one per student (see extensions)
-Three pieces of blank copy paper per student
-Stapler and staples
-Bibliography, one copy for teacher (see extensions)

Day 2
-Photographs of a person at various stages of growth or similar graphics concerning human growth provided in the Pictures of Changes (see associated files)
-Pictures of Changes (see associated files)
-Standards for the unit (see extensions)
-Display space for the standards and the Big Word Wall
-Vocabulary Words and Meanings for the Big Word Wall (see extensions)
-Globe
-Examples of models (model car, model of the human body or a part of the human body, model of the solar system, model of human teeth, model of a volcano, etc.)
-Board space or chart paper
-Examples of different types of reference materials including a website (book marked in advance), encyclopedia, dictionary, textbook, nonfiction book, map, brochure, newspaper, etc.
-Reference materials pertaining to the amount of water on the Earth’s surface, 2-3 for each group of four students (Note – You might want to ask your media specialist to gather these for you.)
-Computer(s) with Internet access
-Blue construction paper, one piece for ¾ of the students in your class
-Brown construction paper, one piece for ¼ of the students in your class
-One-dollar bill and four quarters
-Unifix cubes, 3 of one color, one of another
-Earth Explorer Journals, one per student (see extensions).
-Parent Letter, one copy per student (see extensions)
-Summative Assessment 1: Earth Explorer Project 1, one per student (see extensions)
-Rubric for Earth Explorer Project 1, one per student (see extensions)

Day 3
-Model Terrarium Directions (see associated files)
-Diagram of the Water Cycle, copied and made into a transparency (see associated files, Diagrams of the Water Cycle)
-Overhead projector
-Vocabulary Words and Meanings for the Big Word Wall (Previously downloaded on Day Two)
-Examples of models (gathered previously for Day Two)
-Sketches and Diagrams (see associated files)
-The book, [The Drop in My Drink: The Story of Water on Our Planet], by Meredith Hooper, Penguin Putnam, Inc. 1998, ISBN 0-670-87618-6.
-Sample Web for mapping purposes (see associated files)
-Water Cycle Skit (see associated files)
-Earth Explorer Activity 1, one copy per student and Earth Explorer Activity 1 Answer Key, one copy for the teacher (see associated files)


Preparations

Day 1
1. Download and make copies of Diagnostic Assessment, one per student (see extensions).
2. Download and make copies of Earth Explorer Journal cover, one per student (see extensions).
3. Construct Earth Explorer Journals prior to Day 2. Do this by folding three blank pieces of 8 ½” by 11” copy paper (fold on the 11” side) and insert them into the fold of the cover page. Staple on the folded edge.
4. Download and make a copy of the bibliography (see extensions).

Day 2
1. Prior to Day 2, schedule a time with the media specialist to have the class complete Steps 20-22 if the alternative strategy listed in the extensions (#6) is used.
2. Prior to Day 2, make arrangements with the art teacher to have the water cycle props (found in Water Cycle Skit, see associated files) made by students if the alternative strategy suggested in the extensions (#7) is used.
3. Gather materials.
4. Download and make a copy of Pictures of Changes (see associated files). Laminate pictures for more durability. These pictures are provided in case the teacher cannot locate appropriate examples. If the teacher has other pictures or photos available, feel free to use them.
5. Download and make a copy of the standards for the unit (see extensions). Laminate them for more durability. These can be posted as they are introduced in class to facilitate students becoming familiar with the location of the big word area and referring to the vocabulary words and meanings throughout the unit.
6. Download and make a copy of the Vocabulary Words and Meanings (see extensions). Laminate them for more durability.
7. Download and make copies of Parent Letter, one per student (see extensions).
8. Download and make copies of Summative Assessment 1,Earth Explorer Project 1 and Rubric for Earth Explorer Project 1 (see extensions), one of each per student.
9. Staple Parent Letter, Summative Assessment 1, Earth Explorer Project 1, and Rubric for Earth Explorer Project 1 together.
10. An extensive bibliography of reference materials is provided (see extensions).

Day 3
1. Obtain a terrarium or make one using the provided directions (see associated files).
2. Gather materials.
3. Download and make a transparency of the Diagram of the Water Cycle (see associated files, Diagrams of the Water Cycle).
4. Download and make copies of Earth Explorer Activity 1, one per student (see associated files).
5. Download and make a copy of Earth Explorers Activity 1 Answer Key (see associated files, Earth Explorer Activity 1).
6. Download and make a copy of Sketches and Diagrams (see associated files). Laminate them for more durability.
7. Download and make a copy of Water Cycle Skit (see associated files). You might want to have students color the props before laminating them.
8. An extensive bibliography of reference materials is provided (see extensions).

Procedures

Day 1
The Diagnostic Assessment (see extensions) should be administered prior to lesson one. It is suggested the Diagnostic Assessment be done on a Friday before starting the unit so the teacher will have time to study the results and plan accordingly.

Vocabulary introduced on Day 2: model, bedlam, bedrock
Day 2
1. Share photographs of a person at various stages of development with students (These could be of yourself, your child, or a friend. Just make sure you have permission of the person whose photos you may use). If photographs are not available, you may use the pictures of Human Growth in the associated files (see associated files, Pictures of Changes).

2. Ask students if they notice any changes in the person from one photo to the next. Discuss.

3. Ask students if they have changed since they were born. In what ways? Discuss.

4. Discuss ways people change over time. (Possible ideas might be: Being a baby, being a child, being a teenager, being an adult, and being a senior citizen.)

5. Lead students in a discussion about other things in nature that change. Possible topics might be the growth cycles of animals and plants, seasonal changes, weather changes, phases of the moon, etc. Display Pictures of Changes (see associated files).
Note: You may choose to use pictures or posters that are available.

6. Show students a globe. Elicit from students that a globe is a model of the Earth.

7. Define the word model using the Vocabulary Words and Meanings (see extensions). Explain that models can be used to understand science concepts.

8. Draw attention to the display area for the Big Word Wall. Explain that vocabulary words and their meanings will be displayed as they are introduced throughout the unit.

9. Enlist a student to add the word model to the Big Word Wall.

10. Ask students if they can think of any other examples of a model. Discuss. Possible responses might include a model car, a model train, a model of the solar system, a model of a volcano, a model of the human body, etc. Display examples if available.

11. Explain that over the next two weeks the class will complete the unit Bedlam in Bedrock. Explain the terms bedlam and bedrock. Bedlam occurs when there is a state of uproar. Relate this to the fact that the Earth is constantly changing and sometimes these changes seem like an uproar, as with a volcanic eruption or earthquake. Bedrock is the bottom layer of solid rock that makes up the Earth’s crust. During this unit they will explore ways the Earth changes.

12. Introduce the standards for the unit (see extensions).

13. Post the standards in a prominent place in your classroom.

14. Show students the globe once again. Ask guiding questions such as, “Are all areas on the globe the same color?” or “Why do you think some areas are different colors?” Try to elicit from students that the globe shows both the continents (land) and the oceans (water).

15. Ask students to predict how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by land. Ask students to predict how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by water.

16. Ask students where they think they could find the correct answers to the questions posed in Step 15.

17. Discuss with students that reference materials are materials that include factual information.

18. Display examples of different reference materials and discuss. Possible examples might include encyclopedias, nonfiction books, newspapers, textbooks, maps, brochures, online Websites, or a dictionary.

19. Review strategies for locating information in reference materials (keywords, table of contents, index, guide words, etc.)

20. Draw student attention to a variety of reference materials about the Earth. Tell students they will use the reference materials to locate the answers to the question “How much of the Earth’s surface is covered by water?"
Note: Preview the references to make sure the answer to the question can be found in the majority of them.

21. Divide students into groups of four. Distribute several reference materials to each group.

22. Students in the groups are to use the reference materials to locate the correct information about how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by water. Allow sufficient time for this activity.

23. When most groups have located an answer, bring the students back together. Ask each group to share its answer.

24. Come to a consensus as a class that approximately 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water.
Note - Some references state different percentages, but most are in the range of 75%. Encourage students to use the approximate number of 75% due to the terminology of the standard.

25. Read standard and add it to the display.

26. Explain to students that we can use models to understand the concept of 75%.

27. Engage the students in one or more of the following activities:
-Divide students into groups of four. Give three students in each group a piece of blue construction paper. Explain that three out of four, or ¾ of the students, have blue paper. Three-fourths is equal to 75%. Give one student in each group a piece of brown construction paper. One–fourth of the students have brown paper. One-fourth is equal to 25%.
Have students huddle together in a circle pretending they are the Earth’s surface. Upon your cue, students with blue paper stand up and those with brown paper squat down. This will give students a visual representation of the percentages of land and water coverage on the Earth’s surface.
-Ask 3 boys and 1 girl to come to the front of the class. Elicit from students that there are four students in all. Three of the four or ¾ are boys. Three-fourths is equal to 75%. One of the four or ¼ is a girl. One fourth is equal to 25%. Together they make a whole or 100%.
-Show students a dollar bill and four quarters. Explain that $1.00 is equal to 4 quarters. Elicit that three quarters is equal to 75% of a dollar or $.75. If we used the quarters to represent land and water on the Earth, three of the four would represent water; one of the four quarters would represent land.
-Use four Unifix cubes to make a bar. One of the cubes will be a different color from the other three. Explain that the three that are the same color represent water and the one that is a different color represents land.

28. Review concepts by asking student volunteers to read the standards covered today and the words on the Big Word Wall.

29. As a means of formative assessment, students draw models in their Earth Explorer Journals to show how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by water. First, demonstrate how to draw a rectangle and divide it into fourths on the board. Students are then asked to draw a similar figure in their journals and color the part(s) to represent how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by water blue. They are to color brown the part(s) that represent how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by land. Finally, students write sentences to explain the model.

30. Distribute Parent Letter (see extensions), Summative Assessment 1: Earth Explorer Project 1, and Rubric for Earth Explorer Project 1 (see extensions), stapled together. Discuss the projects with the students. Encourage students to take the papers home and share them with their caregivers. Emphasize the need to work on their project daily.

Vocabulary introduced on Day 3: cycle, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, sketch, diagram

Day 3
1. Review concepts from the previous day. Ask a student volunteer to share one way he/she could model how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by water. (The standards display could be used as a reference if the student doesn’t remember the percent.)

2. Tell students now that they have an idea about how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, today they will learn more about the water on earth and tools they can use to understand scientific ideas.

3. Ask guiding questions such as “Does water ever change?” or “Are there different forms of water on earth?”

4. Brainstorm information students know about water on the Earth. Create a web on the board or on a chart to record student responses. A Sample Web can be found in the associated files.

5. Explain that actually, the amount of water on the Earth’s surface has not changed for billions of years. However, water on earth does undergo changes everyday by being part of the water cycle.

6. Explain a cycle is a process that happens over and over. Add the word and meaning of cycle to the Big Word Wall (Previously downloaded from Extensions on Day 2).

7. Discuss examples of cycles such as the seasons cycle, the lunar cycle, a growth cycle, etc.

8. Tell students you have a very special reference material you would like to share with them.

9. Encourage students to listen to see if they can learn something new about water.

10. Read [The Drop in My Drink: The Story of Water on Our Planet], by Meredith Hooper. Other books about the water cycle may be substituted if this book is not available.

11. Discuss the book. Guide students in understanding that water is in a constant state of change and the water cycle repeats over and over.

12. Introduce the vocabulary words evaporation, condensation, and precipitation using the Vocabulary Words and Meanings (Previously downloaded from extensions on Day 2).

13. Enlist student volunteers to add the words and their meanings to the Big Word Wall.

14. To reinforce concepts, students will act out the stages of the water cycle using props. Select students to participate and handout out props for the Water Cycle Skit (see associated files).

15. Students dramatize the process using the props as the teacher or another student narrates the stages of the water cycle (see associated files, Water Cycle Skit).

16. Review stages in the water cycle with the Blank Diagram of the Water Cycle transparency (see associated files). Call upon student volunteers to provide the evaporation, condensation, and precipitation labels for the transparency. Suggest that students use the Big Word Wall as a reference.

17. Remind students of the model of the Earth (globe) that was used in the previous day’s lesson.

18. Display a model terrarium.

19. Allow time for students to observe the terrarium, two-four students at a time.

20. Ask students if they can think of a relationship between the terrarium and the water cycle on earth.

21. Guide the students in realizing that the terrarium is a model of a cycle by asking questions such as:
· What do green plants need to grow and survive?
· What do you think will happen to the plants if the bottle is never opened again?
· Do you think the plants could survive if no more water is added?

22. Discuss how the roots of the plants absorb water from the soil and the leaves of the plant give off water. If the bottle remains sealed, the water is used over and over again.

23. Review the word model and examples of models.

24. Explain that the terrarium is a representation or model of how plants recycle water.

25. Tell students that models are just one tool that we can use to understand scientific ideas. Today they will learn about other tools that can be used to understand scientific ideas.

26. Define the word sketch using the Vocabulary Words and Meanings (see extensions).

27. Display the word sketch and its meaning on the Big Word Wall.

28. Share examples of sketches with students (see associated files, Sketches and Diagrams).

29. Define the word diagram using the Vocabulary Words and Meanings (see extensions).

30. Share examples of diagrams with students (see associated files, Sketches and Diagrams). At this point, you might want to make reference to the Diagram of the Water Cycle used previously in Step 16.

31. Discuss the difference between a diagram and a sketch (A diagram has more details. It usually has labels.)

32. Display the word diagram and its meaning on the Big Word Wall.

33. Review the meanings of the words sketch, diagram, and model by having class volunteers read them from the Big Word Wall.
· Review the fact that sketches, diagrams, and models can be used to understand scientific ideas.
· Explain that over the next two weeks students will be using sketches, diagrams, and models to help them understand more about changes in the Earth.

34. Tell students you would like to see what they have learned so far.

35. Distribute Earth Explorer Activity 1 (see associated files). Read and explain the directions.

36. Students complete Earth Explorer Activity 1.

37. Use the Earth Explorer Activity 1 Answer Key (see associated files, Earth Explorer Activity 1) to formatively assess student understanding and knowledge of the GLEs addressed in this lesson. Feedback should be both positive (“Great job on the stages of the water cycle!” and guiding (“You seem confused about precipitation. Why don’t you go to the Big Word Wall and review its meaning?”). Use the results to guide future instruction.

38. Remind students they need to work on their Earth Explorer Project 1 each night. Specify that if any student is having difficulty doing the project at home, they need to conference with you. If a student relates that he/she is having difficulty completing the project at home, provide materials and make arrangements for him/her to complete the project sometime during the school day.

Assessments

Students draw a model to represent how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by water in their Earth Explorer Journals on Day 2. The model should reflect that approximately 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water.

Students complete the Earth Explorer Activity 1 on Day 3. Use this activity to formatively assess student understanding of the stages of the water cycle, knowledge that approximately 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, use of sketches, diagrams, and models to understand scientific ideas, and use of reference materials to obtain information related to science concepts. An assessment key and performance level guidelines are provided.

Extensions

1. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=2977. Once you select the unit’s link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, “Associated Files.” This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).
2. A study of the rock cycle prior to this unit would be beneficial in providing background information students need to understand the concept of change over time.
3. Students need some prior knowledge about the three states of matter (solids, liquids, gases).
4. Students need to be familiar with strategies for locating information in reference materials.
5. If the Vocabulary Words and Meanings provided in the Unit File are not big enough to be seen by the students, write them on larger pieces of paper or sentence strips for the display.
6. Students will need some prior knowledge about what green plants need to survive and the leaves of green plants give off water during the photosynthesis process.
7. On Day 2, Steps 20-22, enlist the help of the media specialist and schedule a class time to do these steps in the media center.
8. On Day 3, Step 14, an alternative strategy is to allow students to create the water cycle props for the Water Cycle Skit. Enlist the help of the art teacher for this project.
9. The Earth Explorer Journal can be used daily throughout the unit. A list of suggested Journal Prompts is available in the Unit File. Journal responses could be formatively assessed and used to provide feedback to students.
10. Make a folder for the students to keep the activity sheets in until the end of the unit.
11. This can be used as an integrated unit. It is hoped that teachers will feel free to use the unit as core curriculum. For instance, the book [The Drop in My Drink] could be used as a shared reading experience in language arts. Content vocabulary words could be used for a “Working with Words” activity. If the teacher chooses not to make this an integrated unit, then additional time for daily lessons may be needed.

Web Links

A site for teachers with lesson plans about water. Click on Surface Water.
EPA Office of Water

Resources for teachers and students concerning the Gulf of Mexico.
EPA Gulf of Mexico Program

This site provides background information for the teacher.
EPA Water

This site has a lot of information about the water on the Earth.
USGS Water Science for Schools

Attached Files

Diagrams of the Water Cycle     File Extension: pdf

Earth Explorer Activity 1     File Extension: pdf

Model Terrarium Directions     File Extension: pdf

Pictures of Changes     File Extension: pdf

Sample Web     File Extension: pdf

Sketches and Diagrams     File Extension: pdf

Water Cycle Skit     File Extension: pdf

Return to the Beacon Lesson Plan Library.