Beacon Lesson Plan Library
DescriptionThis lesson introduces the concept of fractions to kindergarten students.
ObjectivesThe student uses concrete materials to represent fractional parts of a whole (one half, one fourth).
Materials-Books used in this lesson include:
Silverstein, Shel. [Falling Up]. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc., 1996.
Murphy, Stuart J. [Give Me Half!] New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc., 1996.
McMillan, Bruce. [Eating Fractions]. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1991.
-Student copies of the Fraction Feast worksheet (See Associated File)
-Chart paper for KWL chart
-Easily divisible food for the Fraction Feast: pizza, graham crackers, Hershey chocolate bars, bunches of bananas, oranges, and popsicles
Preparations1. Locate required books or any suitable substitutes for suggested reading.
2. Download and copy the Fraction Feast worksheet for each student. (See Associated File)
3. Have chart paper available for the KWL chart.
4. Obtain the following food items or any substitutes suitable for the purpose of teaching fractions. Items suggested in this lesson: pizza, popsicles, oranges, bananas, graham crackers, and Hershey's chocolate bars.
5. Notify parents of the upcoming Fraction Feast event in the preceeding weekly newsletter which is sent home on Fridays. The newsletter should ask the parents to fill in any food items listed that the child might be allergic to or is not allowed to eat. The newletter should also ask for parent volunteers for the event.
6. Prepare a class checklist based on the assessment criteria. (See Associated File)
ProceduresThe lesson should be presented later in the school year after the kindergarteners have had substantial practice working with whole numbers.
1. Introduce the lesson by informing the class that they are going to talk about a “big math” word today: Fractions! Survey the class to see what the students know about fractions. Create a KWL chart. The KWL chart helps the teacher and students organize their ideas about what they KNOW, what they WANT to learn, and finally, what they have LEARNed about fractions. Begin the chart by writing what students volunteer about what they KNOW about fractions or sharing, following each entry with the initials of the student who gave the idea. Proceed by asking what they WANT to learn and giving suggestions such as, “How would we split a candy bar so that each of you gets 1/4 or 1/2?”
2. Relate fractions to sharing: “You know, when you [share] something sometimes you're making fractions!” Read the poem “Sharing” by Shel Silverstein. Ask, “Do you think it is sometimes easier to share other people's stuff? Well, fractions are great because they can help make sure that everyone gets the same!”
3. Say, “Here is a great book about sharing food or food fractions.” Read [Give Me Half!] Ask questions about the halves shared in the book, and about what half means. Add information to KWL chart. List foods that students name that they share half of.
4. Read [Eating Fractions]. “What foods did the boys share half of? How was the food divided? What new fractions did we learn?” Add information to KWL chart.
5. Say, “For our Fraction Feast we are going to look at the foods and decide how we can share them to make fractions.” Go over each food item. See how many parts there are and how many parts they can be divided into. Add information to KWL chart.
6. “It's time for our Fraction Feast!” The students then pick the foods they want and everyone eats!
7. While the volunteer moms/dads do clean-up, read each question of the Fraction Feast worksheet to the students. (See Associated File) The students follow along and complete each question by writing in the amount of food they ate in order to form a fraction. Circulate to answer questions and to make sure that the students understand what is required. Reinforce the concepts as the activity is completed. Then have the children give suggestions about what they have LEARNED about fractions to complete the KWL chart, which will be displayed on a fraction bulletin board.
AssessmentsThe KWL chart serves as a diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment. Observational assessment is made during the Activating, Gaining and Using Knowledge activities. Observe responses to be sure that each child is grasping the fraction concepts discussed. If a child is not volunteering answers, call on the child and review with the class. Observe students to see that they are able to use concrete objects (food) to represent fractional parts of a whole. Then have students complete the Fraction Feast worksheet. Observe students for mastery of the standards. (See Assessment Information in the Associated File)
Extensions1. Further reading may include:
Leedy, Loreen. [Fraction Action]. New York: Holiday House, Inc., 1994.
Adler, David A. [Fraction Fun]. New York: Holiday House, Inc., 1996.
2. Use opportunities in the classroom to reinforce and relate fraction concepts.
3. On another day, the class may do the activity “Orange Slices” found at the Website provided to further reinforce fractions. (See Weblinks)
Web LinksFrom this site, choose CURRICULUM. Then scroll down to FRACTIONS. Choose GENERAL FRACTIONS. Scroll down to ORANGE SLICES.
Attached FilesThis file contains the Fraction Feast worksheet and Assessment Information. File Extension: pdf
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