Beacon Lesson Plan Library

Class President

Sandi King
Bay District Schools

Description

Have you wondered what kind of person makes a good president? Students learn strategies to develop reading vocabulary and learn to identify comparison and contrast as an aid to comprehension as they follow Julio and his secret desire to become class president. The novel, [Class President], is used for this ten-day lesson.

Objectives

The student develops vocabulary by reading independently.

The student develops vocabulary by listening to, reading, and discussing both familiar and conceptually challenging selections.

The student uses resources and references such as dictionary, thesaurus, and context to build word meanings.

The student understands a variety of textual organizations (for example, comparison and contrast, cause-and-effect, sequence of events).

The student recognizes comparison or contrast in a text and understands how it impacts the meaning of a text.

Materials

Note: The day notation indicates the day the material is first used.

Day 1
- Copies of the strategies sheets available, from the associated files, for each student
- Construction paper for each student to use as a cover when making a booklet of the strategies sheets
- Student copies of Diagnostic assessment #1, Compare This, from the unitís associated files

Day 2
- A class set of the novel [Class President]. Johanna Hurwitz. New York. Morrow Junior Books, 1990.
- One copy of the instructions for the Dictionary Game
- Formative Assessment Checklist from the unitís associated files
- Two sheets of chart paper
- Markers for writing on the chart paper
- A class set of dictionaries

Day 3
- A transparency of strategies sheets for chapters one and two from the associated files
- A transparency of the citizenship page from the strategies booklet from the associated files
- Overhead projector
- Overhead marking pens
- One copy of the teacher answer key from the associated files

Day 4
- One set of vocabulary cards from the associated files
- One transparency of the Comparison and Contrast Cards from the master in the associated files
- One copy of the Comparison and Contrast Text Examples from the associated files

Day 7
- Worksheets, Classroom Government, for each student, from the associated files

Day 8
- Student copies of Summative Assessment #2, Reading to Learn, from the unitís associated files
- One brownie for each student
- One copy of the Principal Information Note from the associated files

Day 9

- Your Principal for about three minutes on day nine of the lesson plan

Day 10
- One copy of the instructions and scoring guide for Summative Assessment #5, Florida Government at Work, from the unitís associated files

Preparations

1. Locate a class set of the novel [Class President] by Johanna Hurwitz.
2. Download, print and duplicate copies of the strategies sheets available from the associated files. Using construction paper for the cover, make student booklets of the strategies sheets. Strategies sheets are in the proper order in the file with the prediction page, then citizenship, then the chapters in order. This is the order the students will be introduced to each page. Each student must have a booklet. Allow each student to write his/her name on the booklet and the title of the book, [Class President].
3. It would be helpful to teachers to have their own copy of the strategies booklet, as well as a booklet made from the teacher answer key. Teachers then have a model booklet for demonstrations and to help organize their thinking, as well as an easily accessible answer key.
4. Make a transparency of strategies sheets for chapters one and two from the strategies booklet.
5. Make a transparency of the citizenship page from the strategies booklet.
6. Download and print one set of vocabulary cards from the associated files.
7. Download and print one copy of the Comparison and Contrast Cards and suggested answers from the associated files.
8. Make a transparency of the blank Comparison and Contrast Cards.
9. Download and print one copy of the Comparison and Contrast Text Examples from the associated files.
10. Download and print one copy of the instructions for the Dictionary Game.
11. Locate an overhead projector. Check to be sure it is in working condition.
12. Locate a variety of overhead pens.
13. Download and print Diagnostic assessment #1, Compare This, from the unitís associated files. Duplicate and staple pages 3, 4, and 5 for each student.
14. Download, print and duplicate the Formative Assessment Checklist from the unit associated files, one copy for each student.
15. Download and print Summative Assessment #2, Reading to Learn, from the unitís associated files. Duplicate and staple pages 3, 4, and 5 for each student.
16. Download and print one copy of the instructions and scoring guide for Summative Assessment #5, Florida Government at Work, from the unitís associated files.
17. Locate one sheet of chart paper. This chart paper will be displayed when used so devise a way of displaying it.
18. Locate markers for writing on the chart paper.
19. Purchase or make one brownie for each student. The brownies should contain nuts. Parent volunteers may be used to make brownies.
20. Download, print, and duplicate the formative assessment worksheet, Classroom Government , for each student, from the associated files.
21. Download, print, and share the Principal Information Note with your principal. Set a specific time or signal for the principal to make the announcement to the class.

Procedures

This is the second of nine lesson plans for the unit, We the People. This plan addresses the reading standards targeted in the unit. It is a ten-day lesson plan and is to be completed during the part of the teaching day scheduled for reading instruction. Social studies, math and writing standards are integrated with this unit and are addressed in several other lesson plans. See the Unit Plan Overview from the unitís associated files for guidance in how to organize the teaching of the lesson plans.


Note: This lesson plan addresses the textual organization of comparison and contrast.

Session 1 Ė (Day 1 of the unit)
Diagnostic Assessment

1. Begin by administering Diagnostic assessment #1, Compare This. All instructions for administering the assessment as well as all tools needed are available from the unitís associated files. Use the results of the diagnostic to modify the activities presented in this lesson plan to meet the needs of students. The diagnostic assessment will be reviewed and used as a study guide later in the lesson, so retain all copies of the assessment.

Session 2 Ė (Day 2 of the unit)
Introduction

1. To gain studentís attention, tell them that you have a game you would like to play with them. The game is played in teams, so the students need to form three-member teams. Using the associated file to obtain the directions and suggested words, describe the rules of the Dictionary Game to the students.

* For further information and to view a video of the game in action, see the appropriate link in the Weblinks section of this lesson plan. (Note: The video plays on a RealPlayer program. This is a free download from the RealPlayer Website; however, some school districts have a firewall that does not allow playing of videos from computer downloads. If that is true with your school system, you may want to watch the video from your home computer.)

* Since the standards for this lesson only address word meaning, time will not be used addressing syllables or parts of speech as demonstrated in the online instructions and video.

2. Play the Dictionary Game for about fifteen minutes.

3. As you play, formatively assess studentsí abilities to use the dictionary. Note any students who are having difficulty finding the words or deciding which definition matches the word use in the sentence.

4. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

5. Tell students that they will be using the skills they are learning with the Dictionary Game during reading for the next few days.

6. As a pre-reading activity, discuss qualities of a good president. Ask leading questions such as the following:

* Do you know any presidents? (Possible answers are Student Council President, president of a club, President of the United States.)

* How does someone get to be a president? (Usually elected)

* What makes a good president? (Possible answers are truthful, kind, fair to everyone, a leader.)

* How do you think a president should treat others? (Possible answers are fair and kind.)

7. Chart responses for visual learners and for future reference. Allow for discussion of each of these leading questions. The purpose is to stimulate prior knowledge and provoke thought.

8. Distribute the novels, [Class President], to students.

9. Distribute the strategies booklets. Explain that students will be completing this strategies booklet as they read the novel. Allow about one minute for students to look over the contents of the booklet.

10. Have students read the book summary on the back cover of the book. Ask students to mentally predict what will happen in the story. This pre-reading strategy sets the stage for and encourages engagement with the story.

11. Students write their predictions and reasons for the predictions on page one of their strategies books, but do not share their predictions with the class. Be sure students write the date the prediction was made. They will not be allowed to change this prediction, but will have another opportunity to write another prediction after some of the novel has been read.

12. Collect the strategies booklets.

13. After class, read the studentsí predictions. Write any appropriate comments in their booklets to show students that you are reading their booklets. Comments should be directed towards how the students came to their prediction from what was told in the summary and to promote transfer of previous knowledge. Did they comprehend the summary? Did they use any prior knowledge when making the prediction?

14. Collect the novels and store for use the following day.

Session 3 Ė (Day 3 of the unit)
Chapter One

1. To gain studentsí attention, pass out copies of [Class President]. Using the chart created yesterday, orally review their discussion of qualities of a president.

2. Tell students that today they will be reading chapter one of [Class President]. In chapter one there will be words that they may not know. They are to record words they do not know in their strategies booklets. They are to read the sentences around the unknown word and record what they think the word means.

3. Pass out the strategies books. Have them open their booklets to chapter one. You may wish to have your teacher key available during all strategies booklet activities for your quick reference.

4. Using your transparency of the page for chapter one, discuss the table including what and where information should be written in the table. Keep the transparency viewable on the overhead.

5. Ask students to open their novels to page one and to follow along as you read.

6. Read the first paragraph. At the end of the paragraph is the word arithmetic. When reading the word, read it slowly as if you were not sure of the word. Stop at the end of the paragraph and look around like you are thinking.

7. State aloud that arithmetic may be a new word to many people. State that perhaps it would be a good word to write in our strategies booklet.

8. Use the transparency to demonstrate the proper way to enter the word. Put the page number and word in the appropriate columns.

9. Think aloud as to what you think the word means by using the context to gather clues. State that you know you do it in school. It takes time. It is not something Julio likes. It is compared to social studies, which makes you think it may be a subject. In the column for a definition using your own words, write that arithmetic is a subject in school.

10. Tell students to copy your example in their strategies book. Allow about one minute for students to complete this activity. Remember that during the reading, students need only add the word, page number and their definition in their own words. The dictionary definition will be added after the chapter is finished.

11. Ask students to be on the lookout for other words that they may not be sure of as you read. When they find one, students should raise their hands.

12. Continue reading chapter one aloud. In the fourth paragraph on page two is the word monitor. Use this word as your second example and again model adding this page number, word, and what you think it means on your strategies transparency. Remember to think aloud to model how to determine a possible meaning for the word from the text.

13. Have students copy your entry for monitor in their strategies booklets.

14. Continue reading the chapter to students. If a student asks that a word be added, stop and model adding the word to the strategies booklet.

15. Page three has an excellent example of poor citizenship. After reading this page to students, ask them if they noticed an example of poor citizenship. Remind students that good citizens are kind and fair to everyone. Ask if they think Julio is being kind and fair to everyone if he is calling Mrs. Upchurch ďold Upchuck.Ē

Note: The social studies lesson done on day one of the unit addresses citizenship, so students should be familiar with the definition and examples of citizenship.

16. Replace your strategies transparency for the transparency of citizenship, which matches the page in the studentsí strategies booklet. Have students turn to their citizenship pages. Model completing an entry for citizenship by completing all columns on the form. Have students copy your entry into their booklets. Although this activity addresses a benchmark that will be taught in fifth grade, citizenship is the common thread through out this unit. It is appropriate to identify and discuss acts of citizenship in conjunction with the social studies content of the unit.

17. Tell students that now they will be looking for two things while they listen to the story. They will be looking for words they donít know or may not be sure of, and they will be looking for examples of good or poor citizenship.

18. Pages four and five have an example of good citizenship that is implied rather than explicitly stated. Students are being good citizens as they follow the school rules and line up correctly waiting to enter.

19. After completing page four, pause. If no one reports this display of good citizenship, tell students that you have just read an example of good citizenship and request that they reread pages four and five to themselves looking for the example. You may need to tell them that this example is implied, it is not stated in words, but by the actions of the students.

20. Take time to discuss the act of good citizenship and how the students will be looking for both citizenship that is stated in words and citizenship that is shown in how the characters behave.

21. Model adding this good citizenship on the form in the strategies booklet.

22. Students read the remainder of the chapter (pages eight through twelve). As they read, they should add any words that they are not sure of to their strategies page for chapter one. Also, if they find any examples of good or poor citizenship, they should be added to the citizenship page.

23. Turn off the overhead to eliminate distractions.

24. Allow about ten minutes for students to complete the chapter. As they are reading, circulate and formatively assess students as to their abilities to locate unfamiliar words in text. Discuss any words the students may have entered questioning how they decided the meaning . Give oral formative feedback affirming studentsí abilities to locate unfamiliar words and to discuss using the context to determine a meaning.

25. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

26. Pass out a dictionary to each student.

27. Remind students of the Dictionary Game played yesterday. Play a couple of rounds of the game as a review. Instead of teams, play with all students individually.

28. Return to the overhead with the transparency for chapter one displayed. Model using the dictionary to look up the two words you added to your transparency. Model how to decide which definition to copy from the dictionary. Read the definition you wrote from the content. Then read each definition for the word in the dictionary. Think aloud as to which dictionary definition best matches the way the word was used in the story. To check your decision, return to the story to model rereading the word from the story text. Then, reread the dictionary definition decided upon. Affirm that the two definitions match. Copy the definition on the strategies sheet.

29. Continue this modeling procedure with the second word on your transparency model.

30. Students complete finding the dictionary definitions to all the words they wrote in their booklets. As they work, circulate and formatively assess students as to their ability to find the appropriate meanings in the dictionary. Give oral formative feedback affirming correct answers and guiding students towards correct answers if they are incorrect. Feedback may include responses such as
* Yes, you found the definition that matches the way that word was used in the story.
* Letís read the sentence from the story again. Now read the definitions in the dictionary. Which dictionary definition is the best match to how the word was used in the story?

31. If students have not added any entries to their booklets, ask about the words given in the teacher answer key to see if the students know all the words or are being careless. Guide students to add words if appropriate.

32. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

33. Collect the strategies booklets. Give any additional formative feedback in written form in the booklet. If appropriate, mark the Formative Assessment Checklist again to represent the studentsí progress.

34. Collect the novels and store for use the following day.

Session 4 Ė (Day 4 of the unit)
Chapter Two

1. Begin the reading lesson today with a mini lesson on comparison and contrast. Gain studentsí attention by writing comparison and contrast on the board. Ask students if they know what these two words mean. Write the studentsí definitions on the board beside the appropriate word.

2. Select two students and hand each a dictionary. These students may be ones that disagree with the definitions written on the board, ones that are the helpers for the day, or ones that need practice in using a dictionary. Ask one student to look up comparison and the other to look up contrast.

3. As the dictionary definitions are read, key into the fact that comparison is used when looking at how things are alike. Contrast is used when looking at how things are different. Display the vocabulary and definition cards provided in the associated files. Ask a student to place the correct definition beside each word and add these to the class word wall.

4. Tell students that the reason that you brought up comparison and contrast is that writers often use comparison and contrast to help readers understand a story.

5. On a chart, write comparison and contrast as two column titles. Under the comparison, write the word alike. Tell students that alike is one of the words to look for when reading. It signals a comparison. Ask for other words the students may think of that may be used when looking at how things are alike. Some words that may be added are as, like, and same. This list of indicators need not be long as it will be added to as examples sentences and text from the story is read.

6. Follow the same procedure for contrast. Some words that may be added are different, however, on the other hand, and but.

7. Read the sentences that are examples of comparison and contrast in text from the associated files. Have students tell whether the sentence is an example of comparison or contrast. Ask how they know. Add any word indicators to the list on the chart.

8. During this activity, formatively assess studentsí ability to recognize comparison and contrast. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

9. Put the transparency of the comparison and contrast blank master on the overhead.

10. Pass out the novels and ask students to turn to page two.

11. While students are turning, write the heading Julioís safety patrol/Our safety patrol in the comparison chart. See the teacher answer key to the strategies booklets, chapter one, for an example.

12. Read the titles you wrote to the students. Point out that you wrote the titles on the comparison chart.

13. Tell students that they will be reading page two of the story again. This time they will be looking for information about Julioís safety patrol so they can do a comparison of Julioís safety patrol to the safety patrols at their school. Remind students that comparison means alike, so they will be looking for ways the safety patrols are alike.

14. Allow about one minute for students to read page two.

15. Call on students to tell comparisons. Possible answers may be: both are students, both have badges, both tell kids what to do. Write all appropriate answers on the transparency.

16. When the comparison chart is complete, write the titles on the contrast chart. Be sure to write one title in each column. See the example in the teacher answer key of the strategies booklet, chapter one.

17. Ask how the comparison and contrast helps students better understand the story. Possible answers may be that students realize that all schools are not exactly alike or that different schools have different needs.

18. Pass out studentsí strategies booklets.

19. Review the definition of citizenship. Orally review acts of citizenship students have recorded in their strategies book for chapter one. Use the teacher answer key for guidance.

20. Turn to the strategies sheet for chapter one. Orally review vocabulary from chapter one. Call on students to tell words they added to their lists. Discuss their choice of words and the strategies they used to determine the meaning. Be very positive, encouraging students to add words and build their vocabulary lists. Remember that individuals have different needs, so no word is too trivial to be added to an individualís list.

21. Remind students that as chapter two is read, they will be looking for acts of good or bad citizenship and words that they may not know the meaning of.

22. Ask students a few questions about what happened in chapter one in order to gain attention and to prepare students for the reading of chapter two.

23. To give purpose to the reading, tell students that in this chapter they will meet Julioís grandmother. As students are listening and reading, they are to learn what they can about Julioís grandmother.

24. Begin reading chapter two orally to students. Remind them to raise their hands if they find an act of citizenship, good or bad, or a word that needs to be added to the strategies sheet for chapter two.

25. Page fourteen has two words that you will use to model adding words to the strategies sheet for chapter two. Commissioner and campaign are both words that may be unfamiliar to students and whose meanings may need to be discussed. Use the transparency for chapter two as you model the correct procedure for adding these words. Remember that during the reading, students need only add the word, page number and their definition in their own words. The dictionary definition will be added after the chapter is finished.

26. Leave the overhead transparency visible for students to use as a model while completing their individual work.

27. Allow students to select a partner. Pairs of students complete the chapter, pages fifteen through twenty-one.

28. As partners read to each other, they also discuss and enter acts of citizenship and words to their strategies sheets. Remind students that they will not be completing the comparison and contrast charts at this time. Pairs may determine how they would like to take turns reading. They may take turns reading paragraphs or pages.

29. Allow about ten minutes for students to complete reading chapter two and the corresponding strategies sheet.

30. While students are working, circulate and administer an informal formative assessment by observing students as they discuss citizenship and unfamiliar words. Ask students how they decided on a definition of the word. Give formative feedback guiding students to use the content to discover the meaning of words and praising those who are using the content.

31. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

32. After students have completed this portion of the strategies sheet, ask students what words they added to their lists. Give oral formative feedback praising those who have added appropriate words and encouraging those who may not have added words that should have been added.

33. Make any necessary adjustments to the Formative Assessment Checklist.

34. Have students look at the strategies sheet for chapter one. Review how to decide which definition from a dictionary to use for a word. The definition should match the way the word is used in the story.

35. Pass out the dictionaries to each student. Students find the words that have been added to their strategies sheets for chapter two and write the appropriate definition.

36. While students are working, circulate and informally formatively assess students on their ability to use the dictionary to determine word definitions. Give assistance to any students that may need help. Students that finish quickly may be paired with students needing some assistance. Give affirmative feedback telling students why they are correct. Also give corrective feedback guiding students to the correct definition.

37. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

38. Draw studentsí attention to the bottom of their chapter two strategies sheets and the comparison and contrast charts.

39. Display the transparency for comparison and contrast that was used earlier in this lesson. Review the meanings of comparison and contrast. Review that this is one strategy that writers use to help their readers understand the story.

40. Remind students that they were to learn what they could about Julioís grandmother. Tell students that his grandmother is like your grandmother in some ways and different from your grandmother in other ways.

41. Use your transparency of chapter two to model comparing and contrasting Julioís grandmother and your grandmother. Ask for something about Julioís grandmother that the students learned in the chapter. With each detail given by the students, state whether that is or isnít like your grandmother. Write the trait in the appropriate chart. If it is a comparison, start your phrase with both. If it is a contrast, write the trait for Julioís grandmother and in the same row on the chart, write the corresponding trait for your grandmother. See the teacher answer key for chapter two for an example.

42. When you have finished your model of comparison and contrast, allow students about five minutes to complete the charts on their strategies sheet for Julioís grandmother and their own grandmothers.

43. As students are working, circulate and give feedback on individualsí abilities to understand comparison and contrast. In your oral feedback, the point to stress is that by using comparison and contrast while reading, students understand the story better. Talk about how much better the students understand Julioís grandmother now that she has been compared and contrasted to their own grandmothers.

44. Mark Formative Assessment Checklist.

45. Collect the novels and store for use tomorrow.

46. Collect the strategies booklets and review individual booklets, writing any appropriate feedback in the booklet. See the teacher answer key for chapter two for further information while reviewing the booklets. Make a note of any examples of student work that you can share with the class during tomorrowís review.

47. Adjust the Formative Assessment Checklist as appropriate.

Session 5 Ė (Day 5 of the unit)
Chapter Three

1. To gain studentsí attention, pass out the strategies booklets.

2. Tell students that today they will continue to build vocabulary by reading and writing any unfamiliar words in their strategies books for chapter three.

3. Remind students to listen carefully while their partner is reading and to discuss any unfamiliar words with their partner.

4. Remind students that they will be using the content to help them decide the meaning of the unfamiliar words.

5. To review expectations, have students open their strategies booklets to the citizenship page. Share any acts of citizenship that you noted from the studentsí booklets while reviewing them after class yesterday. Ask an individual with an example to please read it for the class.

6. Have students turn to chapter two in their booklets. Call on individuals to share words they entered and how they knew what the words meant. Guide students to admit that they used the content to understand what the word meant. Ask if they found that their meaning was correct when checking in the dictionary.

7. Call on individuals to share a comparison to Julioís grandmother and their grandmothers. Give affirmative feedback telling how to tell it is a comparison because it tells how the grandmothers are alike.

8. Call on individuals to share a contrast to Julioís grandmother and their grandmothers. Give affirmative feedback telling how to tell it is a contrast because it tells how the grandmothers are different.

9. Have students read the titles for the comparison and contrast for chapter three. Discuss the fact that doing a comparison and contrast of what students do after eating lunch will help you better understand what is happening in the story.

10. Pass out the novels.

11. Allow students to select a partner. This must be a different partner than they had yesterday when they read.

12. Tell students that they are to listen to their partner read, discuss any unfamiliar words with their partner, and look for any acts of citizenship.

13. Ask students to partner read all of chapter three. While reading enter any acts of citizenship, good or bad, that they find. Also, enter any words for which they are not sure of the meaning. Remind students to use the content to help them decide on the meaning of the word. Citizenship and vocabulary words with student-contrived meanings are the only sections of the strategies sheet to be completed at this time.

14. As students are working, circulate and formatively assess studentsí abilities to develop vocabulary by reading independently, listening to and discussing the text.

15. Give formative feedback, both to affirm correct responses and to guide students towards correct responses. If you notice students not entering any vocabulary words, question them on various words in the chapter to help them determine whether they actually know the meaning of the words as used in the story. Possible words to question students on are in the teacher answer key to chapter three.

16. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

17. When students are finished reading, ask students to share acts of citizenship that they found in the chapter. Discuss why this act was or was not a display of good citizenship.

18. Call on students to share words and their content derived definitions that were added to their vocabulary list. Give feedback to affirm that the definition is appropriate from this content. Encourage and guide students who are still having difficulty determining meaning or who are not entering words that should be added. Adjust the Formative Assessment Checklist as needed.

19. Pass out dictionaries. Allow students adequate time to locate their newly entered words and copy the definitions from the dictionary onto their strategies sheet. The number of words entered will determine the time needed for this activity. Students will probably average about five words and need about two minutes per word to complete this activity.

20. While students are working, circulate and informally formatively assess students on their ability to use the dictionary to determine word definitions. Give assistance to any students that may need help. Students that finish quickly may be paired with students needing some assistance. Give affirmative feedback telling students why they are correct. Also give corrective feedback guiding students to the correct definition. Some examples of possible vocabulary words are available from the teacher answer key from the associated files.

21. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

22. Draw studentsí attention to the overhead transparency of the comparison and contrast chart.

23. In the comparison chart, write the title What the kids in the story do after lunch/What we do after lunch. Model completing the comparison chart by reminding students that you are using the comparison chart so they are to think about how the two are alike. Call on individual students to tell some comparisons. Discuss their answers and write appropriate answers on the transparency. As you write on the transparency, students write on their strategies sheets.

24. Complete the model of the contrast chart in the same manner.

25. Ask students how comparison and contrast help them to better understand the story. Answers may include that now they understand how kids in the story have time to play games and talk to each other after lunch or now they understand how some kids in the story get in trouble after lunch. Give feedback both to affirm correct answers and to guide toward understanding.

26. Helping students recognize the comparison and contrast and discussing how it helps students understand the story guides students towards mastery.

27. Formatively assess studentsí ability to understand how the comparison and contrast helps them understand the story.

28. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

29. Collect the strategies booklets and novels.

30. Review the strategies booklets writing any appropriate feedback in the booklet. Remember that feedback should affirm correct responses and guide learners who are still having difficulty. Feedback should be specific.

31. Make any appropriate adjustments to the Formative Assessment Checklist.

Session 6 Ė (Day 6 of the unit)
Chapter Four

1. Gain studentsí attention by displaying yesterdayís transparency of comparison and contrast. Ask students leading questions guiding them to respond that the reason for comparison and contrast is to help them understand what they read.

2. Pass back Diagnostic Assessment #1, Compare This. Tell students that you are going to read the text and they should follow along as you read. Students are to focus on comparison and contrast in the text. After listening to the text, students make any changes to the comparison and contrast charts and questions on page five of their assessment. We are not concerned about the vocabulary section of the assessment, only the comparison and contrast information.

3. As students are working, formatively assess their ability to understand the textual organization of comparison and contrast by being able to locate examples in the text and complete the charts. Also assess their ability to understand how the comparison and contrast impacts the meaning of the text.

4. Give oral feedback to affirm correct responses or corrective feedback to guide students to the understanding of how comparison and contrast are used to help them understand the text.

5. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

6. Collect the diagnostic assessments and store in a safe place, as they will be used again.

7. Review the story content by asking questions about characters. Ask which characters are important to the story. Ask about the citizenship of each character the students identify. Have students give examples of how the character shows good or bad citizenship. This pre-reading discussion prepares students for todayís reading by directing their attention to the task and by reminding them of past happenings in the story.

8. Pass back studentsí strategies booklets. Review the citizenship page of the booklets. Remind students to look for examples to add to the page from chapter four reading today.

9. Review the chapter three page having students give examples of vocabulary words entered in their booklet. Remind students that they will be writing their own definitions from the content for each word.

10. Point out that today they will be learning about Arthurís house, specifically his bathroom. How Arthurís house is kept will help us understand more about why Arthur behaves the way he does. Direct studentsí attention to the comparison and contrast charts for chapter four.

11. Allow students to select a different partner. This canít be a partner they have had at any time while reading this story.

12. Tell students that today they will be reading, adding examples of good or bad citizenship to the citizenship page, adding vocabulary and meanings from the story, and completing the comparison and contrast sections. The only thing they will do at a later time is the dictionary skills.

13. Students read chapter four and complete the corresponding assignment.

14. As students work, circulate and give assistance as needed. Give feedback to affirm correct responses or to guide students towards correct responses.

15. As you circulate, formatively assess all skills except the dictionary skills. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

16. Most students will have the same words added to their strategies sheet. Instead of having each person look the words up independently, use this time to play the dictionary game. The game can be played with todayís reading partners making the teams.

17. Call on a student to tell one of the words added to his/her vocabulary list. Ask that the studentís definition be read. Write the word on the board to assist with the spelling. On your signal, students find the word and appropriate definition in the dictionary. When both members of the team have located the word and agreed on the definition, the team members both stand. Allow time for other to locate the word before asking for the page number. Allow time for all students to locate the word before asking for the appropriate definition. Remember that other teams can challenge page numbers and definitions. The team reading the correct definition is the only team gaining a point. For further reminders of how the game is played, see the Weblinks section below.

18. As words are found and definitions read, allow time for students to write the definition in their strategies booklet before proceeding to the next word.

19. As the game is being played, observe and formatively assess studentsí abilities to locate the words in the dictionary and to determine the correct meaning of the word to match the way the word was used in the story. Be sure to observe as many of the students as possible. Use the Formative Assessment Checklist to determine students who are still struggling with dictionary skills and give them first chances to demonstrate their abilities. Give appropriate feedback either to affirm correct responses or to guide students towards the correct responses.

20. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

21. Collect the strategies booklets and novels.

22. Review the strategies booklets and give selected written feedback to affirm correct answers for students who have been struggling and now understand. Give corrective feedback to students needing further assistance. At this point you may need to begin individual conferences to give further assistance to those students who are still struggling.

23. Adjust the Formative Assessment Checklist to reflect any new information gleaned from reviewing the strategies booklets.

Session 7 Ė (Day 7 of the unit)
Chapter Five

1. To gain studentsí attention, pass out the Classroom Government comparison and contrast worksheet. Ask students to follow along as you read the story from the worksheet.

2. Tell students that they will be listening to the story and then will complete the comparison and contrast charts as well as answer the questions to tell how the comparison and contrast helps them better understand the story.

3. Read the story aloud as the students follow along.

4. Allow students about ten minutes to complete the worksheet and turn it in to you.

5. Use the worksheet as a formal formative assessment. When time allows, review the assessment and write formative feedback affirming correct responses or corrective feedback guiding students towards better understanding. At this time, it may be appropriate to call individuals who need additional assistance to confer with you. This assessment will be used as a homework study guide for Summative Assessment #5, Florida Government at Work, that will be administered on day ten of the unit, so review and feedback must be completed in a timely manner.

6. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

7. Pass out Diagnostic Assessment #1, Compare This. Ask students to listen and follow along as you read the story from the assessment once again. This time the students should be listening and watching for unfamiliar words. Ask students to pay close attention to the bold and bold/underlined words. They will be asked the definitions of these words.

8. Read the story from the assessment to students. Ask if there are any words that the students would like to discuss. Allow for discussion, but do not tell answers on the assessment.

9. Pass out dictionaries. Have students follow the directions for the vocabulary sections of the assessment.

10. Allow about ten minutes for students to complete the assignment.

11. While students are working, circulate and formatively assess their abilities to develop vocabulary by reading, listening, and discussing and to use dictionaries and content to determine word meaning.

12. Give formative feedback to affirm correct responses and to correct misunderstandings. Conferences with individuals still having difficulty are appropriate at this time.

13. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

14. Orally review the entire diagnostic by calling on students to tell how they answered each question. Allow students to correct any answers that may be incorrect on their paper.

15. Tell students that tomorrow they will have a paper similar to this one that will be graded. This diagnostic is to be taken home and studied for homework so that they will know exactly what is expected on the assessment tomorrow.

16. On the board, write the title Who Will be President? and the numerals 1, 2, and 3. Under numeral 1 write Cricket. Under numeral 2 write Lucas. Under numeral 3 write Other.

17. As a pre-reading activity, have the students count off 1, 2, and 3. Ones will meet in a group and discuss why Cricket should be class president. Twos will discuss why Lucas should be class president. Threes will discuss why someone else should be class president.

18. Tell groups that they will have thirty seconds to get together and select a spokesperson and then two minutes to discuss reasons for electing their candidate as class president. Give a signal for the groups to form and begin their task.

19. Gather the names and write the name of each spokesperson by the corresponding numeral on the board.

20. When two minutes and thirty seconds have elapsed, all discussion must end. Call on each group spokesperson in turn to tell why their candidate should be elected.

21. This pre-reading activity engages students in remembering details of the previous chapters and prepares them for todayís reading.

22. Since you have already reviewed the vocabulary skills with the diagnostic activity in procedures seven Ė fourteen, and the comparison/contrast skills in procedures one Ė five, no further review is needed before reading begins.

23. Remind students to listen as their partner reads, locate and discuss vocabulary and enter words and definitions on the page for chapter five of their booklets. Also, acts of good or bad citizenship should be recorded on the citizenship page of the booklet.

24. Pass out the strategies booklets. Draw studentsí attention to the comparison and contrast charts for chapter five. Remind them to pay close attention to how the nuts are cracked in this chapter.

25. Tell students that they will finish the entire chapter five page of the booklet. Dictionaries may not be used until all other portions of the chapter five page are complete.

26. Pass out novels.

27. Allow students to select a new reading partner. This partner may not be one that has been used before in the reading of this novel.

28. Chapter five has twelve pages, so it should not take more than about thirty minutes to complete the reading and booklet.

29. Allow student to read for about ten minutes uninterrupted. While they read, review their comparison and contrast worksheet done earlier. See procedures number five for details of how to use this as a formative assessment. Store this worksheet in a safe place for future use.

30. After about ten minutes of reading and working, students should be ready for some teacher feedback. Formatively assess students as to their abilities to develop vocabulary by reading, listening, and discussing and to use dictionaries and content to determine word meaning. Also, formatively assess students as to their abilities to recognize and understand comparison and contrast and how it helps them understand the meaning of the story.

31. Give verbal feedback both affirming correct responses or guiding students towards correct responses.

32. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist for all five reading standards addressed in this lesson.

33. Collect the strategies booklets and novels.

34. Remind students that they will have an assessment tomorrow that is similar to the diagnostic assessment that they reviewed today. Remind them to put the diagnostic assessment in their backpacks to take home today to use as a study guide.

35. Review studentsí booklets and write any appropriate feedback in the booklets. This is a good place to document your efforts to teach and reteach students that are still having difficulty.

36. Adjust the Formative Assessment Checklist as needed after reviewing the booklets.

Session 8 Ė (Day 8 of the unit)
Summative Assessment and Chapter Six

1. Administer Summative Assessment #2, Reading to Learn. This assessment, including all instructions for administering it, is available from the unitís associated files. Collect and score the assessment, documenting the results in your grade book. (See Extensions for further information.)

2. Prepare students for reading by displaying a plate of brownies. Each student must tell one thing about the brownies from the story in order to earn a brownie to eat. Some responses may tell why the brownies were made, who made them, what problems were had while making them, who was annoyed with the making of the brownies, what the ingredients are, etc. This pre-reading activity gets the students in a frame of mind to continue with the story.

3. As students finish eating their brownies, pass out strategies booklets and novels. Have students turn to chapter six in both the booklet and novel.

4. Since the assessment has taken a portion of the time allotted for reading, and since the standard states that students develop vocabulary by listening to, and discussing selections, chapter six will be read by the teacher as the students follow along.

5. Before reading, draw studentsí attention to the subject of the comparison and contrast in chapter six. Remind students to be looking and listening for information about endorsements. Donít define endorsements for the students, but rather wait until page 56 and discuss the use of the word in context.

6. As the chapter is read, pause at the end of any paragraphs that you feel may contain a word that students may want to enter in their booklet. Some possible words are listed on the teacher answer key.

7. Initiate a discussion anytime you feel it is appropriate which will encourage students to make vocabulary entries. When you see students begin writing, pause at the end of the paragraph. Students canít write and listen at the same time. Give them a chance to make entries without getting lost in the story.

8. Citizenship is not one of the assessed standards for this unit, but serves as the tie that binds the unit together. Therefore it is appropriate for you to call studentsí attention to acts of good and bad citizenship as you read. Encourage discussions about the acts of citizenship. Be sure to allow students time to add these entries to their booklets.

9. At the completion of the reading, allow students time to complete the comparison and contrast information of their strategies sheets and to complete the dictionary portion.

10. As students complete their work, circulate and formatively assess studentsí ability to develop vocabulary by reading, listening, and discussing and to use dictionaries and content to determine word meaning. Also, formatively assess students as to their abilities to recognize and understand comparison and contrast and how it helps them understand the meaning of the story.

11. Give formative feedback to affirm correct responses and to correct misunderstandings. Conferences with individuals still having difficulty are appropriate at this time.

12. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

13. Collect booklets and novels.

14. Review strategies booklets writing appropriate feedback to those students who have just begun to understand the concepts and skills and to those students who still need assistance. Be sure to give both affirmative and corrective feedback. Individual conference again may be appropriate for students who are still struggling.

15. Adjust the Formative Assessment Checklist as needed after reviewing the booklets.

Session 9 Ė (Day 9 of the unit)
Chapter Seven

1. The school principal (or assistant principal) should announce to your class that because of Arthurís broken glasses and because of the danger of the sport, soccer will no longer be played on the school grounds. Hopefully the principal can come to the room or use the public address system to make the announcement at the appropriate time. If this is not possible, a note from the principal typed and signed can be read and displayed in the classroom.

2. The principal or teacher should initiate a short discussion about the announcement. This pre-reading activity serves as a reminder of previous events in the story and peeks interest in todayís reading.

3. Pass out strategies booklets and novels.

4. Have students open their booklets to the citizenship page. Ask for entries from chapter six. Discuss any appropriate acts of citizenship as to why it is an example.

5. Ask students to turn to chapter six. Allow students to share words that were added as well as their definitions. Call on a student to answer the comparison/contrast question as to how does the comparison and contrast of the endorsements help you understand the story.

6. Allow students to have a choice in how they would like to read this chapter. Choices include having the teacher read, reading with a partner, alternating paragraphs with the teacher, or reading individually. This is a democratic process so each student has one vote and the majority rules.

7. Complete the reading of chapter seven as determined by the majority of students.

8. Allow time for students to complete all sections of the chapter seven strategies sheet.

9. As students complete their work, circulate and formatively assess studentsí ability to develop vocabulary by reading, listening, and discussing and to use dictionaries and content to determine word meaning. Also, formatively assess students as to their abilities to recognize and understand comparison and contrast and how it helps them understand the meaning of the story.

10. Give formative feedback to affirm correct responses and to correct misunderstandings. Conferences with individuals still having difficulty are appropriate at this time.

11. Mark the Formative Assessment Checklist.

12. Since the final summative assessment for these reading standards will be the completion of the strategies sheet for chapter eight, students must be notified to this fact. Ask for any questions that students may have regarding expectations for the assessment. Allow students to take a peek at the strategies sheet for chapter eight and ask any questions that they may have.

13. Return the Classroom Government formative assessment worksheet to students. This was completed on day seven of this lesson plan. Orally review this assessment and answer any questions students may have. Tell students to use this worksheet as a study guide to help them get ready for the chapter eight strategies sheet that will be graded tomorrow.

14. Collect booklets and novels.

15. Review strategies booklets, writing appropriate feedback to those students who have just begun to understand the concepts and skills and to those students who still need assistance. Be sure to give both affirmative and corrective feedback. This is the final opportunity for individual conference for students who are still struggling.

16. Adjust the Formative Assessment Checklist as needed after reviewing the booklets.

17. Be sure to let the students know that the principalís announcement was part of the lesson and not a real announcement for the school. You may want to invite the principal back to the class at the end of the day to confirm that he/she was helping them think about their story and that soccer is not banned from the school yard.

Session 10 Ė (Day 10 of the unit)
Chapter Eight

1. Before reading any of the novel, students used the summary to make a prediction of what would happen. Now that most of the novel has been read, students will be using the prediction strategy again. This activity is used to gain studentsí attention and engage them in reviewing the story.

2. Pass out the strategies booklets. Have students turn to the prediction page. Ask students to silently read the prediction they wrote before the novel was begun. Ask several students to read their predictions orally as discussion starters. Classmates comment on the prediction and how closely it matches what has actually happened. This discussion serves as a pre-reading review of the story.

3. Ask students to use what they now know about the characters to make a second prediction. Students predict who will be elected class president and tell what happened in the story that helps them make the prediction.

4. Allow about five minutes for students to write predictions.

5. Ask students to turn to their citizenship page in their booklets. Call on individuals to read one act of citizenship from chapter seven. This review helps prepare students and set the stage for todayís reading.

6. As a reminder of expectations for the chapter eight strategies page that will be used as a summative assessment, have students turn to their chapter seven page.

* Call on individuals to read a word and both definitions entered in their vocabulary list. Give affirmative feedback stating that the word entered is a good example of an unfamiliar word, the content of the story was used to decide the first definition, and that the dictionary definition is a good match to the content definition.

* Call on individuals to read their entries in the comparison chart. Remind students that comparison means alike. Encourage student discussion.

* Call on individuals to read their entries in the contrast chart. Remind students that contrast means different. Encourage student discussion.

* Call on individuals to answer how the comparison and contrast of the speeches helped students better understand the story. Encourage student discussion.

7. Remind students that their booklets for chapter eight will be graded.

8. Pass out novels.

9. Since individual students will be assessed on the skills on the strategies sheet for chapter eight the strategies sheet, including all vocabulary skills, must be completed individually; however, since all students may not be reading at the level of the readability of the novel, you may assist students with the reading portion of the chapter.

10. Allow ample time for students to complete the assignment.

11. Collect the completed booklets and novels.

12. Follow the instructions and scoring guide from Summative Assessment #5, Florida Government at Work, when evaluating chapter eight strategies sheets.

13. [Class President] is an Accelerated Reader Book and a Reading Counts Book. If either of these programs is available to students, allow them to take the computer assessment. This assessment should be used as documentation for appropriate standards, but not for the standards addressed in this unit.

Assessments

Diagnostic Assessment
Before the first teaching session, Diagnostic Assessment # 2, Compare This, is to be administered. This assessment is available from the unitís associated files. All instructions and tools are contained in the file. See the Extensions section of this lesson plan for a link to the unit.

Formative Assessment
Using the studentsí strategies sheets completed with each chapter of the novel, teachers daily formatively assess studentsí abilities to use strategies to develop vocabulary and to recognize and use comparison and contrast in text to understand the meaning of the text. An answer key is available for the strategies sheets from the lesson plan associated files. Verbal and/or written formative feedback should be given daily to each student. A Formative Assessment Checklist for recording individual studentsí daily progress is available from the unitís associated files. (See Extensions)

When marking the Formative Assessment Checklist, consider the following criteria:

The student develops vocabulary by reading independently.
* Does the student read independently?
* Does the student enter words from the story onto the strategies sheet?

The student develops vocabulary by listening to, reading, and discussing both familiar and conceptually challenging selections.
* Does the student listen when being read to by the teacher or a reading partner?
* Does the student read the story independently?
* Does the student become involved in the discussions of the story?
* Does the student enter words from the story onto the strategies sheet?

The student uses resources and references such as dictionary, thesaurus, and context to build word meanings.
* Does the student successfully use the dictionary to determine meaning for the vocabulary word?
* Does the student use the content to determine meaning for the vocabulary word?

The student understands a variety of textual organizations (for example, comparison and contrast, cause-and-effect, sequence of events).
* Does the student understand the meaning of comparison?
* Does the student understand the meaning of contrast?
* Can the student determine if a text is a comparison or contrast?

The student recognizes comparison or contrast in a text and understands how it impacts the meaning of a text.
* Can the student locate a comparison and contrast in a text?
* Can the student tell how the comparison and/or contrast helps them understand the meaning of the text?


Summative Assessment
Students are administered two summative assessments for the targeted standards. On day eight, Summative Assessment #2, Reading to Learn, is administered. On the final day of the unit, Summative Assessment #5, Florida Government at Work is administered. All instructions and tools for administering, evaluating, and scoring these summative assessments are available from the unitís associated files.

Extensions

1. Modifications may be made for any students having difficulty reading the text. Allow them to partner with another student for pairs reading or gain assistance from the teacher or adult volunteer.
2. The Beacon Unit Plan associated with this lesson can be viewed by clicking on the link located at the top of this page or by using the following URL: http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/search/details.asp?item=5197. Once you select the unitís link, scroll to the bottom of the unit plan page to find the section, Associated Files. This section contains links to the Unit Plan Overview, Diagnostic and Summative Assessments, and other associated files (if any).
3. This lesson can be done independently of the unit.
4. If this lesson is not being used as part of the unit, allow students to hold a mock election to elect a class president.

Web Links

1. This site is a teacher resource for learning various strategies for teaching vocabulary. For this lesson, pay close attention to the rules for the Dictionary Game. A video of the game being played with students is available from this site.
Reading Educator, Vocabulary Strategies

2. This teacher resource is a reminder of Bloom's Taxonomy and is to be used during post-reading instruction while assessing students' comprehension.
Reading Educator, Discussion Strategies, Bloom's Taxonomy Questioning

3. Several charts for use when teaching comparison and contrast are available for download. One is shown on the page and several more are downloadable to print. Several versions of a Venn diagram are available.
ReadingQuest Strategies Comparison-Contrast Charts

4. This teacher resource is to a graphic organizer used with the compare and contrast thinking strategies.
Chart Graphic Organizer

5. The teacher resource gives a wonderful chart of the five areas of reading instruction with strategies and examples for each area.
Classroom Strategies

Attached Files

1. All work pages that will be combined to make the strategies booklet†††††File Extension: pdf

2. Teacher Answer Keys for the strategies booklet†††††File Extension: pdf

3. Comparison and contrast cards for making overhead transparencies †††††File Extension: pdf

4. Text examples of comparison and contrast †††††File Extension: pdf

5. Instructions and examples for the Dictionary Game†††††File Extension: pdf

6. Classroom Government worksheet†††††File Extension: pdf

7. Vocabulary cards†††††File Extension: pdf

8. Principal Information Note†††††File Extension: pdf

Return to the Beacon Lesson Plan Library.