Roman Numerals
Counting . . . we all do it many times every day. We count our stuffed animals, forks needed for setting the table, and our number of hits in the big game.
From the earliest time, man has had a need to count.
How many dinosaurs are headed our way?
Have you ever wondered how people counted before we had numerals? They counted on their fingers. They made lines in the dirt.
One early counting system used beads or stones arranged in rows.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
All numerals can be written by combining these symbols that the Romans used.
VI means 5+1 so VI means 6
IV means 5-1 so IV means 4
III means 1+1+1 so III =
LXI means 50 + 10 + 1 so LXI=
CC = 100 20 200 XVI = 14 16 10 CLX = 160 100 151
CX = 60 110 1,001 CV = 55 95 105 XX = 10 20 200
Subtracting
If a smaller numeral is to the left, subtract it from the larger numeral to the right.
IV means 1 subtracted from 5 so IV = 4
XL means 10 subtracted from 50 so XL = 40
IX means 1 subtracted from 10 so IX = 9
IX means 1 from 10 so IX = XL means 10 from 50 so XL= IV = 4 5 6 IC = 100 99 101 XC = 100 99 90
VL = 55 50 45 VC = 95 99 105 IL = 40 49 51
Remember: always start reading from the left.
CXL means C = 100 XL = 10 from 50 = 40 CXL means 100 + 40 = 140
XIV means X = 10 IV = 1 from 5 = 4 XIV = 10 + 4 =
CIV = 100 104 106 XLV = 45 55 65
XIX = 19 21 20 CCIX = 109 200 209
We can count using our decimal numerals and Roman numerals. Complete the chart below.
Complete the chart below. Remember the placement of the numerals tells us when to add or subtract.
As you are roaming around through your favorite books, look for Roman numerals as page numbers or chapter numbers. Now you will know the value of the numerals.